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experience, usually sink into nothing or worse than nothing. "Lo here! lo, there," is not the genius of Christianity. Our master discountenanced it. Furnished as he was with a miraculous power that he might have held the world under the spell of admiration, he never prostituted the gift to any such purpose. He never did marvels for show, never for the gratification of the captious or the curious, never for his own benefit, but always for his Father's glory, and for the good of the needy. Let us in no case tempt the Lord our God, but in all cases trust him. The third temptation was to

III. WORLDLY AMBITION AND PRIDE OF EMPIRE. "Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain," &c. vers. 8-9. We must allow Satan the meed of praise for diligence and perseverance in his malicious work. He spares no pains, and does not in haste give up his purpose. This shifting about from place to place is an old device in temptation. It is written of the temptress, "Least thou shouldest ponder the path of life her ways are moveable." Prov. v. 6. What cannot be accomplished at one point may be effected at another. Thus Balaam and Balak manoeuvred in their attempts to curse the camp of Israel: "And Balak said unto him, Come, I pray thee, with me unto another place, from whence thou mayest see them; thou shalt see but the utmost part of them, and shalt not see them all; and curse me them from thence." Num. xxiii. 13.; compare also ver. 27. Neither in the hungry desert nor on the high place of the temple could the virtue of Christ be shaken. As little success will there be on the lofty mountain, how tempting soever the prospect offered to his eyes and proffered to his acceptance for simple homage. How was this grand show brought before the eyes of Christ? Was it an illusion, a vision, a panorama, conjured up by satanic power, and played off before the eye? or was it a real and veritable prospect of a vast extent of country? We must candidly say we hesitate, though we incline to think it was real, and not visionary, a view which obliges us to qualify and explain the narrative with a limitation of the expressions used. If we insist upon exactness of language, it is obvious that from no point whatever could all the kingdoms of the world be seen at a view. The spherical form of the earth renders it impossible. An extended plane may be taken in at once, if the spectator is sufficiently elevated, but not the globe. In our principle of interpretation the difficulty is met by limiting the phrase, "all the kingdoms of the world," to mean, not the whole, but just a considerable part of them, sufficient for a sample and specimen of the whole. And if we might understand the world in the limited sense in which it is sometimes employed, as when we say the Roman world, we would find little difficulty

in illustrating our theory of this third temptation. If we adopt the theory that Palestine or the Holy Land is intended, it is easy enough to find a mountain to command a view of it almost entire. Take, for example, that from the top of which Moses saw with his eyes the goodly land, that he was not allowed to touch with his feet-"And Moses went up from the plains of Moab unto the mountain of Nebo, to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho. And the Lord shewed him all the land of Gilead, unto Dan. And all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim, and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah unto the utmost sea. And the south, and the plain of the valley of Jericho, the city of palm trees, unto Zoar. And the Lord said unto him, This is the land which I sware unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, saying, I will give it unto thy seed; I have caused thee to see it with thine eyes, but thou shalt not go over thither." Deut. xxxiv. 1-4. From such an advantageous post of observation, our Lord might easily see the breadth of Immanuel's land. If the reader take exception to this way of disposing of the subject, we see no way left so likely as Bengel's, to explain it. He showed "to his eyes those things which the horizon enclosed; the rest, perhaps, by enumeration and indication." See Bengel's Gnomon in loc. Such extensive lands lying beneath the golden light of the sun, offered as a present to a man in the prime of life, of vigorous mind and manly strength, and noble purpose, would be no mean allurement. The heavenly-minded man of Nazareth held it all at its right estimate. The price to be paid for it was more than its worth. Nothing is valuable enough to do wrong for. Moreover, he knew that it was all his by previous gift from his Father, to have and to hold for the best of purposes. In ancient covenant the uttermost parts of the earth were to be given to him at his request. His rule was to be of a loftier nature than that of ordinary potentates, so that the offer of kingdom, crown, and sceptre, was but the offer of despised toys. His kingdom in the world was not of the world. But who is this pretending to give away lands and territories? Is he the rightful owner? Were they his, either in right or perpetuity? We admit that he bears the titles of "the prince of this world," and "the god of this world," and his right is acknowledged by the major part of mankind. But those titles are usurped and held on false grounds. The worship satan stipulated for was of the nature of divine worship, such as is proper to be paid to God only. The answer to his proposal shews that it was so. According to Luke's narrative, the tempter was modest enough to admit that he was but an underling proprietor, and that the property was placed in his gift:-"all this power will I give thee, and the glory of them; for that is delivered unto me, and to whomsoever I will, I give it."

Our Lord treated this proposal differently from the two former. He gave reasons before why the things should not be done. And in this instance also a reason is given :-"Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve." But to this, rebuke is added, and authority is interposed, and he is ordered to be gone, and his name is divulged and thrown at him: "Get thee hence, satan." Not till now has it been recognised between them that he was such a person as satan. He acted his part under a hood, affecting good-will and sympathy with his opponent, and concealing his real character. Now, however, his vizor is up and his true face is seen. So shocking a proposal may well reveal that he is satan. We suppose, however, that Jesus knew him from the first, and now he names him, and will endure him in his presence no longer. He bids him go. And he cannot withstand the command. He goes, but meditates mischief and a renewal of the combat at some future convenience, for which information we are indebted to Luke: "he departed from him for a season," expecting better success in some after encounter. Here is instruction. At no time may we calculate that we have done with the enemy. We may beat him three times, and he may leave us temporarily, but without taking his farewell of us. He never utters a true adieu. "Watch ye, stand fast, quit ye like men, be strong." Expect what the enemy threatens, and be fore-armed. The hour and power of darkness will return upon you, as upon your victorious Head. The victory obtained in the wilderness did not prevent the renewal of the combat in Gethsemane, and smaller warfare in the interim, of which there is no record. The engagement being ended angels step into the arena. Had they been near all this time watching and witnessing the conflict? And why did they not interfere and give the balance of their presence, to assist in giving the scales a cast in favour of the right? Not It was single fight. The honour of moral warfare required that they should keep a due distance. The champion of man must tread the wine-press alone, and foil the great enemy by his unaided might. It was allowed these angels to stand at a distance to see. Their Lord needed no help in the engagement. And yet, marvellously enough, he permits help when it is over. These angels do not only congratulate him on the triumph, (if they do that at all, which it is not said they do), but they succour him: "Angels came and ministered (or deaconed) unto him. They were his deacons. So the word is (DICKONOUN). And they will be ours. Moreover, we may expect, what he did not receive, aid in our conflicts as well as refreshing after them. And, what is of still more value, we may rely on the sympathy and succour of Jesus himself, who for our sakes went through this severe ordeal. We cannot look to be free from temptation. It is a part of the

so.

law of our probationary state. But, however tempted, we may be hopeful of victory, Christ having conquered. His cause is ours. And we are sure that ours is his: "For we have not an High Priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin." Heb. iv. 15.

“The Lion of Judah will break every chain,
And give us the vict'ry again and again."

T. G.

ART. VII.--FAITH, A SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE.

N the two great questions, which relate to the origin and the actory

light. Revelation answers both. It tells us not only by whom and how, but for whom and why, "the worlds" were made. It would seem that this latter question, to wit, what a world, which exhibits so much plan and skill in its construction, and is governed by a mechanism and laws so admirably adjusted throughout, was made for, no less than the former, would be constantly pressing upon every studious, thoughtful man; that it would be with him the question of all questions, in comparison with which the laws that govern electrical phenomena, or the affinity that gives its exact form to the crystal, or the forces which control planets and comets, would be pronounced as of altogether inferior importance. These very laws dictate this greater inquiry. Science has many knotty points, but the hardest problem of all, is that which is the greatest, and lies back of all,-nay, is that, which, considered in a large view, makes the others worthy of philosophical investigation,What was the world made for? This question receives no answer, which is not childish and trivial, unless we look for it in the immortality of man, and that invisible future state brought to light in the Scriptures.

Faith, or truth, is so essential an element of our intellectual being, that, if smothered, when a ground on which it ought to rest is presented, the tendency is to dwarf the mind. The Scriptures reveal truth which is essential no less to the wellbeing of the mind than of the heart. To the same extent that

important truth is discarded or neglected, will the mind be misguided, possibly seriously unhinged, in its operations. That the quality of the most gifted intellect must be improved by the admission of truth, and suffer loss by its denial or refusal, needs only a statement. "The entrance of thy words giveth light; it giveth understanding to the simple." Ps. cxix. 130. Are we to suppose that the humble faith and prayerful spirit of a Newton had no influence on his intellect and the grandeur of those results which it wrought out? Would a Humboldt have been any less distinguished in the world of letters, or a less safe guide as a teacher of scientific truth, if he had been a humble believer in Jesus? No mind can be in a truly healthful state, or can be a safe guide in any matters which involve moral questions, so long as it is destitute of faith towards God, in respect to any of the manifestations he has been pleased to make of himself. To insist that the senses, or experiment, shall be the determining test, as to the limits of all that passes under the name of knowledge, what is it but to ignore the immortal nature of man, and bring him down towards the level of the brute? Man has an immortal, as well as a rational nature, a heart as well as mind. God, in his word, recognises and takes both under his direction; and is thus true to our whole nature. The Bible is the most thought-inspiring book in the world. Even men who have not been careful to square their lives by its precepts have confessed to its quickening power on their intellects. It makes large contributions to the sum of human knowledge in the department of science, as well as that of literature. These were to some extent enumerated in a former volume of this work, so far at least as one portion of the Bible, the Pentateuch, is concerned.

It is, however, a sincere faith in the revelations of the Bible which can alone supply what our nature needs. It ennobles the mind. It raises it above the present, with all its difficulties and darkness, to the hope which may be gathered from the progressive character of God's works and dispensations, beginning in the distant past, and stretching on to the unending future. As a source of positive knowledge, reference might be made to the revelations, which faith appropriates, concerning the nature of the supreme Being, as Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and his purposes of grace towards our fallen race. We might even point to that purely spiritual, yet experimental knowledge, which it begets in the innermost consciousness of the believer, enabling him with a holy confidence in the words of the great apostle, to say, "I know whom I have believed;" or to claim the knowledge of all those things which the beloved apostle, in his first epistle, ascribes to sincere faith. But, in considering faith as a source of knowledge, as we now propose to do, we shall confine the discussion to the

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