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designs and the coating of the iron with other metals by electro processes, or by a process that preserves iron against rust without paint, go to make up in extent and beauty a branch of iron manufacture that has developed from very small beginnings to extensive proportions. The enclosure of elevator shafts in fire-proof buildings is generally of iron grille work, which has the same characteristics as iron stair work in points of design and workmanship.

In putting the different kinds of materials in place in the building a saving of time and labor is sought. Even in ordinary buildings, brick and mortar are no longer carried on men's backs up a ladder. Hod-hoisting machinery has taken the place of manual labor in this respect. On important buildings power derricks lift all heavy weights from the ground to the uppermost story stone, iron, and everything else. It is not an unusual sight to see a cartload of brick brought to a building, the horse then unhitched, the cart hoisted by the derrick to an upper story, and the brick dumped, after which the cart is lowered to the ground. The riveting of connecting parts of ironwork in important buildings is done by machine instead of by hand. (See PNEUMATIC MACHINES.) Foundations for high buildings, where the soil is uncertain or inadequate to bear enormous loads, are carried down to rock by means of cylinders of iron sunk to the required depth and then filled in with masonry or concrete. In other cases a framing of iron beams covering the whole area of the building, much like a raft, is laid and covered with concrete.

Architecture has played a most important part in the development of the modern building. Consequently a slight departure from the main thread of this subject may be allowable in order better to trace the progress of the century in the building line. The origin of architecture is wrapped in obscurity. Caves and huts of branches were the first buildings made by man. Examples of a second stage of development are found in the stone monuments of various islands in the Pacific and in the ancient monuments of America. The ruins of Mexico show no foreign influence in their artistic workmanship, and are therefore regarded as an independent national development. Some of these show an advanced and highly ornamental form of the pyramid. Of Oriental architecture the Egyptian examples are perhaps the most striking. The numerous monuments of India can be compared in extent and magnificence only with those of Egypt. China received its architecture from India. Grecian, Roman, and Gothic architecture furnishes high examples of the art, and many of its features are interwoven with modern architecture.

A new period in the development of architecture began about the close of the 18th century, when a reaction against the rococo style made itself felt. Important examples are the Mint in Berlin and the Brandenburg Gate, built at the close of the 18th century. The age and conditions of American civilization do not admit of an indigenous architectural development, as in older countries, and therefore we find in the United States examples of almost every known national style. The building operations of the settlers of the 17th century were modeled upon those of the countries whence they had emigrated.

Thus the early buildings of New England and Virginia are essentially English; those of New York and Pennsylvania are Dutch and German; while Florida shows thoroughly Spanish architecture, and New Orleans is practically a transplanted French city. With the beginning of the 18th century the increased intercourse between the individual colonies gave rise to a more homogeneous architecture. The more important buildings of the period are all the works of English architects, among them being King's Chapel, Boston (1749), by Harrison, and Saint Michael's, Charleston, S. C. (1752), by Gibson, a pupil of Wren. To the same period belong Christ Church, Philadelphia, and the old State-houses of Boston and Philadelphia. The dwelling-houses of the colonial period were simple in style and usually of wood, depending for their external effect principally upon the use of columns, and with interiors of great plainness, the ornamentation being concentrated in the staircases, of which some artistic examples are still in existence.

The first and chief of the government buildings at Washington was the Capitol. In its present form the capitol is a monumental edifice with a dome 135 feet in diameter, rising 217 feet above the roof. The architectural effect is secured by the free use of porticos and colonnades, and by the striking approaches. The other government buildings are of a similar style. Since that period a style founded on the Italian Renaissance has been employed in nearly all public buildings, sometimes with great success. To this period, also, belongs the New York City Hall‍ (1803-12), built of marble and freestone, which at the time of its erection surpassed all buildings in the city in material and conception. For a time Greek architecture became the fashion, and it was applied to many buildings. To this development belong the custom-houses in Philadelphia and New York (with monolithic columns), and Boston and Girard College, Philadelphia.

The first successful attempt in Gothic architecture was the erection, in 1839-45, in New York, of Trinity Church, by Richard Upjohn, which has since remained the accepted type of American church buildings. From the church the Gothic style was for a time carried to all other classes of buildings, but was soon abandoned. With the rapid growth of the country in wealth and ambition there succeeded crazes for various architectural styles. Egyptian, Moorish, Swiss, and other types were employed, but finally all of them were abandoned. Subsequently a revival of Gothic architecture, under the influence of Ruskin, produced some buildings of merit, among them the National Academy of Design, New York (lately taken down), largely in the Venetian style; the State capitol of Connecticut, at Hartford; and the Harvard Alumni Memorial Hall, at Cambridge.

During recent years the prevailing style for municipal buildings has been that of the French Renaissance. Imposing examples of this style are seen in the new municipal buildings of Philadelphia and in the new buildings of the State and war departments at Washington. Many of the newer capitol buildings of the various States are of architectural merit, the most elaborate being the capitol at Albany. In church architecture, New York, Boston, Chicago, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and some western cities


possess good examples of Gothic and other styles. The largest and most costly existing church edifice on the Continent is Saint Patrick's Cathedral, in New York, where the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, now in course of construction, will, when completed, rank as one of the great cathedrals of the world. A notable departure from the Gothic style is seen in Trinity Church, Boston, where the Romanesque has been employed with great artistic success.

Every one of the group of subjects referred to occupies a relationship more or less intimate to the others. A modern building is something more than merely the walls and roof. It includes the products of trades that a century ago had no existence, others that have lived less than half a century, and still others that less than a quarter a century ago were unknown. With the growth of population the number of buildings proportionately increases. In our great cities many families living independently of one another occupy together a single building, while the former rule was one family to a house. New conditions of living have arisen, not merely for the poor in tenement houses, but for the well-to-do and affluent, in the aggregation of many homes under one roof. Increasing the size of buildings vertically instead of horizontally called for the working out of new problems not only in engineering but in sanitary science. American ingenuity and skill have, however, kept pace with every requirement or necessity. The achievements and progress in every direction which have added so much to the welfare and greatness of our country during the past one hundred years have nowhere been more marked than in the materials used and the knowledge of their proper applications in the construction of buildings.

WILLIAM H. JACKSON, Pres. Jackson Architectural Iron Works, N. Y. Building Societies. See BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATIONS.

Building Stone, stone suitable for building construction. The best building stones are found among crystalline silicious rocks, such as granite for example; among calcareous rocks, which include the various limestones and marbles; or among fragmentary rocks, such as slates and sandstones. To be available for purposes of construction, a stone should possess certain physical and chemical properties; such as durability, permanency of color, crushing strength, elasticity, and cheapness, and should be easily quarried. Stones vary greatly in their durability, depending upon their chemical composition and the particular purposes for which they are used. As soon as a stone is quarried, it becomes exposed to changes in temperature, causing expansion and contraction of its particles and ending ultimately in its disintegration; to the chemical action of rain and atmosphere; and to frost and various mechanical forces, all tending to weaken it.

Granite. The best building stones have a compact formation, are not susceptible of chemical changes, and are easily worked. Granite comes nearest to perfection in this line. It is the strongest stone in use, and, having been employed for ages, is found to withstand severer tests than any other stone. It is a very hard silicious rock, having a massive and granular crystalline structure, containing the minerals

quartz, feldspar, mica, horneblende, and, occasionally, a little iron. The general color is gray, due to the presence of black mica or horneblende in the white quartz and feldspar. The red and pink varieties are caused by the presence of a red feldspar. The greatest granite beds in the United States are found in Maine and Massachusetts. These granites are chiefly gray. A large amount of red granite is quarried in Nova Scotia, Scotland, and Sweden.

Limestone.- Next to granite, the most durable building stones are the limestones. These vary greatly in both structure and color. Marble and chalk are the purest limestones, but it will be convenient to notice first those more or less composite limestones which are sufficiently hard and strong for building, yet not highly crystalline like marble. One of the best varieties of this stone is the Indiana limestone. It has a white or cream color, is of fine granular structure, and is readily worked. Many of the largest buildings in New York and Chicago are built of this stone. One of the best English building stones is the dolomite, or magnesian limestone of the Permian_formation, which ranges from Nottingham to Tynemouth. It is a double carbonate of lime and magnesia, containing a varying proportion of silica. The Houses of Parliament are built of this dolomite, which unfortunately decays rapidly under the influence of the London atmosphere. Among ancient buildings, some parts of York Minster show its perishable nature. Yet in Conisborough Castle, built in the 12th century, and in some country churches nearly as old, it has stood the effects of time very well.

Marble.- Marble is a purer grade of limestone, of a finely crystallized structure. It is composed almost entirely of calcium carbonate. Its color varies from a pure white to a black, and it often occurs with a red, yellow, or brown color. These colors are due to the presence of carbonaceous matter and iron oxides. Marbles occur in the United States in the beds of the Silurian limestone, which border the Appalachian Mountains, and also in the Rocky Mountains. The best grades are quarried in Vermont, and a very good marble for building use is found in western Massachusetts and in Connecticut. In Europe, the principal sources of marble are Northern Italy, France, Spain, and Portugal. The Numidian marble from Algeria has an international reputation.

Sandstone.- Sandstones are composed of consolidated sand, and vary in color, structure, and composition. They are, as a rule, composed principally of quartz, some English sandstones containing as much as 97 per cent. The other substances they contain are chiefly carbonate of lime, alumina, and oxide of iron. It is hardly possible to tell a good sandstone merely by chemical analysis. A hard, non-porous stone is, of course, more likely to be lasting than one which is soft and porous. In color they vary from a gray, through buff and red, to brown; this coloration being due to the presence of iron as an oxide or carbonate. The sandstones mostly used in the United States are the Ohio freestones, or Berea grits, from the Subcarboniferous formation of Ohio, and the red and brown freestones of Triassic formation on the Atlantic coast. A blue-gray sandstone, containing a large amount of alumina, occurs in New York State, and, on account of


its thin stratification, it is split in slabs and used for flagging purposes.

Serpentine. This stone is composed of silica and magnesium in about equal portions. It is a greenish color and of massive structure. It is rather soft, and is not very durable; but is used to a large extent in interiors and in the trimmings of churches and other places where a pleasing color effect is desired. Trap.-Trap, or basalt, is one of the most durable stones known; but, on account of its extreme hardness, is little used in building. It is of igneous origin, and will withstand great changes in temperature and extreme frost. It ranges from gray to black in color, is massive in structure, very heavy, and of irregular cleavage. It occurs in almost all parts of the

world, and is used to a considerable extent in

the United States in the building of asylums, prisons, and other State institutions. Its sombre color seems to make it quite appropriate for this purpose.

Besides these commoner stones, many others are employed for interior and ornamental work, among them various colored slates, onyx, alabaster, and a great variety of artificial stone, brick, and tile. Government reports show the value of the best known building stones quarried in the United States to be some $50,000,000 annually. Consult: Hall, Treatise on the Building and Ornamental Stones of Great Britain (1872); Merrill, Stones for Building and Decoration' (1891); Johnson, The Materials of Construction' (1899).

Building of the Ship, The, a well-known poem by Longfellow, published in 1849.

Builth, boolth, a small town of Wales, in Brecknockshire, situated on the Wye, in the midst of some of the finest mountain scenery of South Wales. The parish church is a building in the Norman style, with a tower of the 14th century. It was probably the Roman station Bullæum, and Roman relics are yet occasionally discovered there. Llewellyn, the last Welsh prince, was slain in the neighborhood in an engagement between the Welsh and English. There are here remains of an old castle surrounded by a moat. Builth has mineral springs which are much frequented. Pop. (1901) 1805.

Buisson, Ferdinand Edouard, far-de-non a-doo-är bwē-son, French educational administrator: b. Paris, 20 Dec. 1841. After completing his studies at Paris he went to Neuchâtel, Switzerland, where he taught from 1866 to 1870. His appointment by Jules Simon in 1871 as inspector of elementary schools aroused much agitation on account of his advocacy of the secularization of the schools. The opposition of the Church party led to his resignation. In 1873 he was sent to the exposition in Vienna, to represent French educational interests; in 1876 he came to Philadelphia on a similar mission, and in 1878 was in charge of the educational section of the Paris Exposition. In 1879 he was made director of elementary instruction and became prominent for the reforms introduced during his administration. After resigning from this post in 1896 he accepted the professorship of pedagogy in the Faculté des Lettres. His strong stand on the Dreyfus question attracted much attention. He is the author of an authoritative 'Dictionary of Peda

gogy) (1882-4), and has also written 'Liberal Christianity'; Orthodoxy and the Gospel in the Reformed Church'; The Teaching of Sacred History in Primary Schools'; 'Duties of American Scholars'; 'Pedagogical Lectures and Talks'; and a life of Sébastian Castellion.

Buitenzorg, boi-tën-zôrg ("without care"), a favorite residential town in the island of Java, about 40 miles south of Batavia, with which it is connected by rail. It contains a fine palace of the governor-general, celebrated botanic gardens, etc. It has great natural beauty; its elevated location renders it an unusually healthy town, and it is moreover the fashionable summer resort of the island.

in Andalusia, 21 miles east by north of CorBujalance, boo-ha-län'tha, a city of Spain, dova, on an elevated plain in a mountainous district. It has a city wall and moat, contains a Moorish castle dating from 935 and a college. Its manufactures include cloth and woolen fab

rics, earthenware, and glass, and it exports wheat, oil, and industrial produce, and imports wool. A large cattle fair is held in August and September. Pop. (1900) 11,245.

Bukowina, boo-kō-vē'nä ("beech land"), Austria-Hungary, a province in the extreme east of the empire, surrounded by Galicia, Russia, Moldavia, and Hungary. Area, 4,035 square miles. It is traversed by offsets of the Carpathians, culminating at 6,077 feet; gives rise to many rivers flowing toward the Black Sea; and abounds in wood, along with considerable mineral riches. Pop. (1900) 729,921, of whom 42 per cent are Ruthenians, 32 Moldavians, and 13 Jews, while 70 per cent belong to the Greek Church.

uated 100 miles northwest of Lassa. It has an Bul-tso ("borax lake"), Thibet, a lake sitarea of 24 square miles.

Bulacan, boo-lä-kan', Philippines, a town in Luzon, about 22 miles northwest of Manila, with which it is connected by railway. The town is composed mainly of native huts, although there are factories in which silk matting is made. Sugar-boiling is also an industry of importance. The place has strategic advantages, which caused it to become a theatre of military operations after the Spanish-Amerimade a military post by the United States auIt was fully pacified in 1900, and thorities. Pop. about 14,000.

can war.

Bulak, boo-läk', or Boulac, Egypt, the port of Cairo, on the Nile, about one mile distant from that city. It is irregularly built, and contains a custom-house, a fine palace, a school of languages, a celebrated printing-office, set up by Mehemet Ali in 1822, a large bazaar, etc. Goods are brought here from many parts of northeastern Africa, and the Cairo merchants come here every morning to make purchases. Its narrow streets present a busy and characteristically Oriental scene. Pop. about 13,000.

Bulama, boo-lä'ma, an island on the west coast of Africa, one of the Bissagos. It is 18 miles long and 9 broad, and is situated about two miles from the mouth of the Rio Grande. It is very fertile, but not easy of access. The Bulama Association of Great Britain attempted to colonize it in 1792, but it was soon abandoned. It is now occupied by the Portuguese. See BISSAGOS.


Bulan, boo-län, Philippines, a town of the province of Albay, situated in the southeastern part of the island of Luzon. Pop. about 11,000.

Bulau, boo'low, or Tikus, tī'koos, an animal of the mole family (Talpida) and genus Gymnura (G. rafflesi), a native of Sumatra and Malacca, bearing a considerable resemblance to the opossum. The muzzle is much prolonged, the fur pierced by a number of long hairs or bristles, and the tail naked. It is possessed of glands which secrete a kind of musk.

Bulawayo, boo-lä-wä'yo, Rhodesia, the principal town and chief commercial centre of Matabeleland, South Africa, 490 miles northeast of Mafeking, 1,360 miles from Cape Town, with which it is connected by railroad. It has several hotels, good business blocks and residences, banks, and telephone service, and is rapidly growing in size and importance. A few years ago it was the chief town of the Matabele tribe, though only a collection of rude huts, in an enclosure of wattles, whose inhabitants were savages of the lowest type. The royal kraal is now replaced by the government house, which communicates by an avenue a mile and a half long with the town proper. Pop. (white) about 5,000.

Bulb, the name given to a leaf bud belonging to certain perennial herbaceous plants, and particularly to the monocotyledons. It is always underground, and is supported by a kind of solid and horizontal plate lying between it and the true root. To this flattened portion the fleshy scales of which the bulb is externally formed are fixed by their base. The interior contains the rudiments of the flower-stalks and leaves. The outermost scales are thin and dry like paper, but they become more fleshy and succulent in the interior. Sometimes the scales are of one piece, a single scale embracing the whole circumference of the bulb, as in the onion and the hyacinth. They are then named "coated" or "tunicated bulbs." At other times the scales are smaller and free at the sides, and cover one another only in the manner of tiles on a roof, as in the white lily. Lastly, the coats are sometimes so close as to be confounded together, so that the bulb seems as if formed of a solid and homogeneous substance. Such bulbs are called "solid," and they are exemplified in the common saffron. Bulbs again are either "simple," as in the tulip or squill, or they are "multiple," or formed of several small bulbs collected under the same envelope, as in garlic. Bulbs are reproduced every year, but differently in different species, the new bulbs sometimes being formed in the centre, sometimes at the side, sometimes above, sometimes below the old bulbs.

Bulbul, bülbül, a small, brilliantly plumaged thrush-like bird of the family Pycnonotida, species of which are found in Asia, Persia, India, and South Africa. The South African one (Pycnonotus tricolor) is remarkable for becoming intoxicated by syringa berries and similar fruits, at which time it is easily captured and caged. The common Indian bulbul (P. hæmorrhous) is a familiar and favorite bird of European residents, and often builds its nest in their gardens and on the verandas. The pugnacity of the males is utilized by the

natives for their amusement, the birds being caught and trained to fight for small prizes. The name "bulbul" was applied to the little Persian nightingale (q.v.), and first introduced into English poetry by Lord Byron, after which its praises were much sung by the poets of the day.

Bulfinch, Charles, American architect: b. Boston, 8 Aug. 1763; d. there, 15 April 1844. He was graduated from Harvard in 1781, for several years traveled in Europe, studying architecture, which he adopted as a profession upon his return in 1786. In 1793 he built the first theatre in Boston. In the course of his career he designed more than 40 churches and public buildings in New England. Among them were: the State house, Suffolk county courthouse, Massachusetts General Hospital, and remodeled Faneuil Hall in Boston; the State prison and MacLean Asylum, at Charlestown; the county jail and University Hall in Cambridge; and the State house in Augusta, Me. From 1817 until its completion in 1830 he was the architect of the national capitol at Washington. Consult: Ellen Bulfinch, Life and Letters of Charles Bulfinch, Architect' (1896).

Bulfinch, Thomas, American author: b. Boston, Mass., 15 July 1796; d. there, 27 May 1867. He graduated at Harvard University in 1814. Although engaged in business he managed to devote considerable time to literature. Among his best-known works are The Age of Fable' (1855); The Age of Chivalry' (1858); Legends of Charlemagne) (1864); Oregon and Eldorado' (1866).

Bulgaria, bul-gar'ēa, or bool-gä'rēa, a principality in Europe, bounded north by the Danube and Rumania; east by the Black Sea; south by Turkey; and west by Servia; capital, Sofia. It has an area of 38,080 square miles. Its surface is a gradually sloping plain, broken by occasional mountains, which give rise to many rapid tributaries to the Danube. There is little mining, although the mountains are rich in minerals. The soil is excellent and the slopes of the mountains are richly wooded. The inhabitants, though not skilled in agriculture, export a considerable quantity of grain, chiefly wheat. Fruit and vegetables are raised in abundance. Roses are largely cultivated for the production of the attar; 80,000 gallons of wine are made annually; silk worms are bred in some regions; and tobacco forms an important crop. Domestic industries are chiefly carpets, cloths, hosiery, and ribbons. The roads are very bad, and there is but a single line of railroad, about 500 miles, on the route between Vienna and Constantinople. All traffic is carried on by the rivers, and the export trade by the Black Sea. The government is Christian. There is a national militia, and military service is compulsory. The Bulgarians were originally a Tartar nation, which in the 4th century was settled on the Volga. The ruins of their former capital may still be seen in the neighborhood of Kazan. Their kingdom, which occupied a part of the Asiatic Sarmatia of the Greeks, was called Great Bulgaria, and is now comprehended in the Russian government of Orenburg. They afterward removed to the countries between the Bog and the Danube, and called their territories Second Bulgaria. The first Bulgarian kingdom south of the Danube was founded in the latter



half of the 7th century, but the Bulgarians who established it were comparatively few in number, and after their adoption of Christianity in the 9th century they became completely mixed up with the Slavonic inhabitants, though the whole became known as Bulgarians. The greatSymeon est ruler of this kingdom (888-927), who subjugated the greater part of the peninsula, and raised the Archbishop of Bulgaria to a position independent of the Patriarch of Constantinople. Under the son of Symeon this empire fell to pieces. The western half broke off and formed a separate kingdom, with Ochrida in Macedonia for its capital; and the eastern portion was subdued by the Byzantine emperor, John Zimisces, who reincorporated it with the empire. The western Bulgarian kingdom existed only till about 1018, when it also was subdued by Basil II., "the slayer of the Bulgarians." Toward the end of the 12th century, however, the Bulgarians revolted and managed to establish a third kingdom between the Balkan range and the Danube, which, sometimes weak and sometimes powerful, continued to exist till the advent of the Turks. The last ruler of this kingdom was conquered by Bajazet I. about 1390, and for nearly 500 years the Turks ruled supreme. In 1876, on account of the atrocities of the Turkish soldiers, an insurrection broke out. Russia took the part of Bulgaria against Turkey, and the war of 1877-8 followed. (See BATAK.) By the first article of the Treaty of Berlin, 13 July 1878, the principality of Bulgaria was constituted, made tributary to Turkey, and placed under the suzerainty of the Sultan. In 1879, Alexander of Battenberg, a German prince, was chosen sovereign of part of Bulgaria, the rest being made a separate province called East Rumelia, to prevent Bulgaria from becoming a strong state. In 1885 there was a revolution in East Rumelia, which annexed itself to Bulgaria. Servia intervened, and Alexander was forced to abdicate. Against Russia's will, Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg accepted the vacant throne in 1887. The government is that of a hereditary prince as chief executive, with responsible ministers and Legislative Assembly (one for every 10,000), elected directly by the people for three years; it pays (1900) annual tribute to the Sultan. Pop. 3.733,189: about 74 per cent Bulgarians, 19 per Turks, the rest Spanish Jews, with a sprinkling of Greeks; 77 per cent are of the faith of the Orthodox Greek Church; only 212 per cent Moslems.



Bulgarian Language and Literature. Bulgaria and the adjacent provinces of Macedonia considered to have been the cradle of the old Slavic languages. The ancient Bulgarian language was the richest of them all, and was the scriptural language of the Greek-Slavic Church, and the great medium of ecclesiastical literature in the ancient Slavic lands. The Russian language is said to have been molded by missionaries of the Greek Church sent from Bulgaria about the 11th century, while the future empire was still in a state of semi-barbarism. The Russian tongue has preserved many inflections which the Bulgarian has lost. After the overthrow of the Bulgarian kingdom at the close of the 14th century, the grammatical structure and purity of the language became impaired by mixture with the Wallachian, Alba

Greek vernaculars; and the modern Bulgarian
nian, Rumanian, Turco-Tartar, and perhaps
language has only the nominative and vocative
of the seven Slavic cases, all the rest being sup-
plied by prepositions. It has an article, which
is put after the word it qualifies, like that of the
Albanians and Wallachians. Among the ancient
Bulgarian ecclesiastical literature must be men-
tioned the translations of the Bible by Cyril and
Methodius, and the writings of John of Bulgary
in the 10th century. Grammars of the Bulgarian
language have been published by Neofyt in
1835, and by Christiaki in the following year.
Venelin, a young Russian scholar, sent to Bul-
garia by the Russian archæographical commis-
sion, published in 1837 a grammar and two vol-
umes of a history of the Bulgarians, but died
while he was engaged in preparing a third vol-
ume. A new grammar was given to the public by
Bogojev in 1845, and finally in 1849, by the Rev.
E. Riggs, an American missionary stationed at
Smyrna, who also sent a Bulgarian translation
of Gallaudet's Child's Book on the Soul' to
New York. Dictionaries of the Bulgarian lan-
guage have been compiled by Neofyt and Sto-
janowicz. A Bulgarian version of the New Tes-
tament was printed at Smyrna in 1840 for the
British and Foreign Bible Society. The Bul-
garian national songs are numerous, and are
similar to those of the Servians. Czelakowsky's
collection of Slavic songs contains a number
of Bulgarian songs. Bogojev has published sev-
eral historical poems. Among
writers may be mentioned the poet Christo
a publication on the subject of education has
Boteff, and the poet-novelist Ivan Vazoff, while
appeared from the pen of Neofyt.

more recent

Bulgarin, Faddéï Venediktovich, fä-dā'ē va-na-dik'to-vich bool'gär-in, Russian author: b. Minsk, 1789; d. 13 Sept. 1859. He served in the Russian army, but, finding himself neglected, in 1810 joined Napoleon. In 1819 he returned to St. Petersburg, where his writings soon attracted notice by their intense satire and serhe started the Ssevernaja vility. In 1825 Ptchelá (Northern Bee), a daily paper, which for long was alone permitted to discuss political questions. A zealous supporter of reaction and unlimited power. He of absolutism, he enjoyed, through relations with the secret police, an was a witty and versatile writer, and published travels, histories, novels, and statistical works.

Bulgaris, bool-gä'res, Demetrius, Greek statesman: b. Hydra, 1803; d. Athens, 11 Jan. 1878. While a young man he held office in his native city and took a prominent part in the Grecian war for independence. In 1831, after the downfall of Cape d'Istria, he had charge of the administration of the Department of Marine; but on the accession of King Otho he retired from office. After the revolution of 1843 he was a member of the Senate, and from 1848 to 1849 was minister of finance in the Cabinet of Canaris. During the Crimean war he was at the head of the Cabinet and as minister of the interior put an end to internal disorder and entered the Senate as a leader of the opposiconciliated the powers. In 1857 he resigned and tion. At the outbreak of the revolution of 1862 fos as his colleagues, but was deposed by the he was made regent, and chose Canaris and Ruformer. In 1865, 1872, and 1874-5 he was again at the head of the Cabinet.

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