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ournemouth, bōrn'mŭth, a famous watering-place in the south of England, 30 miles southwest of Southampton, on the English Channel, at the southwest corner of Hampshire, near the boundary of Dorsetshire. It is within the limits of the parliamentary borough of Christchurch, but forms a municipal borough by itself. It is situated on a semicircular bay at the mouth of a small stream, the Bourne, whence it derives its name. It has become very popular as a seaside resort for consumptive and other delicate persons. It is to a large extent laid out in villas and detached houses. The Westover Gardens in the centre of the town are a favorite resort; they include a winter garden, where orchestral concerts are regularly given. There are two piers, three arcades, assembly rooms, baths, etc. The buildings include hospitals, sanatorium, home for consumptives, and some handsome churches, among the latter being the new Bennett Memorial church and St. Peter's church, both beautiful Gothic buildings. In the churchyard of the latter lie buried William Godwin, Mary Wollstonecraft, and their daughter, the wife of Shelley. Pop. (1901) 47,000.
Bourrienne, Louis Antoine Fauvelet de. loo-e än-twän fō-ve-la de boo-ryen, French historian and diplomatist: b. Sens, 9 July 1769; d. Caen, 7 Feb. 1834. He was educated with Bonaparte at the school of Brienne, where a close intimacy sprang up between them. On their separation in 1785, when Bonaparte set out to attend the Ecole Militaire in Paris, they vowed an eternal friendship. At the age of 19 he proceeded to one of the German universities, with the view of studying law and languages. He returned to Paris in 1792, and renewed his early friendship with Bonaparte, who employed him in drawing up, along with Gen. Clarke, the text of the Treaty of Campo Formio. From this period Bourrienne's diplomatic career commenced. He accompanied Bonaparte as his private secretary on his expedition to Egypt, and afterward continued in that capacity on his elevation to the consulate. In 1804 he was nominated by the emperor his minister-plenipotentiary at Hamburg. In the end of 1813 he returned to France, where he received the apVol. 3-1
pointment of director of the posts, and in 1814
Boursault, Edmé, ěd-mã boor-sō, French writer: b. 1638; d. Montluçon, 1701. Having gone to Paris and engaged in literature he both gained and lost the favor of royalty, and produced pieces for the stage with permanent success; among others, Esope à la Ville,' and Esope à la Cour,' which still continue on the stage. His two tragedies Marie Stuart' and Germanicus' are forgotten. Boursault had the misfortune to quarrel with Molière and Boileau. He wrote a severe criticism on the 'Ecole des Femmes under the title of Le Portrait du Peintre. Molière chastised him in his 'Impromptu de Versailles. To revenge himself on Boileau, who had ridiculed him in his satires, he wrote a comedy called 'Satyre des Satyres.'
Boussa, boos-sa. See BUSSANG.
Boussingault, Jean Baptiste Joseph Dieudonné, zhon băp-test zhō-zef dye-don-nă boosăn-go, French chemist: b. Paris, 2 Feb. 1802; d. there, 12 May 1887. He went to South America in the employment of a mining company, and made extensive travels and valuable scientific researches there. Returning to France he became professor of chemistry at Lyons in 1839, was made a member of the Institute, and then made Paris his chief residence. His works deal chiefly with agricultural chemistry, and include 'Économie Rurale (translated into English and German); Mémoires de Chimie agricole et de Physiologie); Agronomie, Chimie agricole, et Physiologie,' etc.
BOUSSINGAULTITE - BOUVARD
Boussingaultite, boo-săn-gō'-tit, a native hydrated sulphate of magnesium and ammonia, having the formula (NH),SO..MgSO, + 6H2O. It has a specific gravity of about 1.7. It occurs with boracic acid (q.v.) in the Tuscan lagoons, especially at the fumaroles of Mount Cerboli. Artificial crystals are prisms belonging to the monoclinic system. A related mineral occurs in soft, white, granular masses in Sonoma, Cal.
Boustrophe'don, a kind of writing found on Greek coins, and in inscriptions of the remotest antiquity. The lines do not run in a uniform direction from the left to the right, or from the right to the left; but the first begins at the left and terminates at the right; the second runs in an opposite direction, from the right to the left; the third, again, from the left; and so on alternately. It is called boustrophedon (that is, turning back like oxen) because the lines written in this way succeed each other like furrows in a ploughed field. The laws of Solon were cut in tables in this manner.
Boutelle, boo-těl', Charles Addison, American legislator: b. Damariscotta, Me., 9 Feb. 1839; d. 21 May 1901. He served in the navy during the Civil War, entering as an acting master, and being promoted to lieutenant for gallantry in action. 1870 he became the editor of the Bangor Whig and Courier. He was elected to Congress in 1882, and held his seat till December, 1900, when he resigned, and was made a captain on the retired list of the navy. He was chairman of the House Committee on Naval Affairs in the 51st, 54th, and 55th congresses and was author of the bill (1890) authorizing the construction of the first modern battleships of the United States navy.
Bouterwek, Friedrich, frēd'riн bow-tèrvěk, German philosopher: b. 15 April, 1766, at Oker, a village not far from Goslar, in North Germany; d. Göttingen, 9 Aug. 1828. He was at first a follower of Kant, but finally attached himself to Jacobi. His Ideen zu einer allgemeinen Apodiktik' was the immediate fruit of his intimate acquaintance with the philosophical views of Fr. H. Jacobi. This work was published in two volumes, 1799. It was afterward completed by the Manual of Philosophical Knowledge (1813), and by the 'Religion of Reason (1824). In this work, as well as in his Aesthetik (1806-1824), he had to contend with many powerful antagonists. Bouterwek has gained a permanent reputation by his Geschichte der neuern Poesie und Beredsamkeit (History of Modern Poetry and Eloquence) (1801-19), a work which, though unequal in some respects, and in parts, especially in the first volume, partial and superficial, is an excellent collection of notices and original observations, and may be considered one of the best works of the kind in German literature. Among his minor productions, a selection of which he published in 1818, are many essays, which are superior to the best of his larger speculative works; for instance, the introduction to the History, in which he gives an account of his literary labors until that period, with great candor and with almost excessive severity against himself. His 'History of Spanish Literature' has been translated into Spanish, French, and English.
Bouto, boo-tō, or Tucuxi, Indian names for the dolphin (Ínia geoffrensis) of the Ama
Bouton, John Bell, American author: b. Concord, N. H., 15 March 1830; d. Cambridge, Mass., 18 Nov. 1902. He edited the Cleveland Plain Dealer 1851-5, and was connected with the New York Journal of Commerce 1857-89. He contributed for ten years to Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia, and published Loved and Lost' (1857); 'Round the Block' (1864); Treasury of Travel and Adventure'; 'Round about Moscow' (1887); 'Uncle Sam's Church' (1895); 'Memoirs of General Bell' (1902).
Bouts, Dirk, or Dierick, dérk or de-rik bowts, Dutch painter: b. Haarlem, about 1410; d. 1475. He was a brilliant colorist and one of the most prominent members of the Flemish school. Among his works are the Martyrdom of St. Erasmus' in the Church of St. Peter, Louvain; and the 'Martyrdom of St. Hippolitus' in the cathedral of Bruges.
Bouts Rimés, boo-re-ma (French), words or syllables which rhyme, arranged in a particular order, and given to a poet with a subject, on which he must write verses ending in the same rhymes, disposed in the same order. Ménage gives the following account of the origin of this ridiculous conceit, which may be classed with the eggs and axes, the echoes, acrostics, and other equally ingenious devices of learned triflers. "Dulot (a poet of the 17th century) was one day complaining, in a large company, that 300 sonnets had been stolen from him. One of the company expressing his astonishment at the number. 'Oh,' said he, 'they are blank sonnets, or rhymes (bouts rimés) of all the sonnets I may have occasion to write.» This ludicrous statement produced such an effect that it became a fashionable amusement to compose blank sonnets, and in 1648 a 4to volume of bouts rimés was published. Sarrazin's Dulot Vaincu, ou la Défaite des Bouts Rimés,' is an amusing performance.
Boutwell, bowt'well, George Sewell, American statesman: b. Brookline, Mass., 28 Jan. 1818; d. Groton, Mass., 27 Feb. 1905. He was admitted to the bar in 1836; served in the State legislature in 1842-51; governor of Massachusetts 1851-2; was an organizer of the Republican party in 1854, and appointed the first commissioner of the newly established Department of Internal Revenue in 1862. He was representative in Congress 1863-9; one of the managers of the impeachment trial of President Johnson; secretary of the treasury in 1869-73; and a United States senator in 1873-9. Besides numerous speeches he published Educational Topics and Institutions' (1859); several works concerning taxation; The Constitution of the United States at the End of the First Century) (1896); Reminiscences of Sixty Years in Public Affairs (1902). After 1898 he was especially prominent as a leader of the Anti-Imperialists and vigorous opponent of the Philippine policy of the administration.
Bouvard, Joseph Antoine, zhō-zef än-twän, French architect: b. Saint-Jean-de-Bournay, 19 Feb. 1840. He was a pupil of Constant Dufeux, whom he assisted in his work connected with the Panthéon, the Law School, and the Palace of the Luxembourg. He was appointed inspector of
public works in Paris, and, in 1879, was city architect, making himself famous by his work on the Théâtre Lyrique, the Church of St. Lawrence and the barracks of the Republican Guard. He transformed the old grain market into a Bourse; constructed the railway stations of Sainte Etienne and Marseilles; was architect of the Pavilion of the City of Paris at the exposition of 1878; and created the magnificent central dome of that of 1889. He had charge of the decoration of Paris at the time of the visit of the emperor of Russia, and won great popularity by the magnificence of the festivals which he arranged. In June 1897, he was appointed director of the newly created administrative direction of architecture and promenades. He was made an officer of the Legion of Honor in 1889. He took an important part in the preparation for the Universal Exposition of 1900, being director of architectural services and chief of the management of fetes, under
Bouvardia, boo-vär'di-a, a genus of about 25 species of American shrubs or perennial herbs of the natural order Rubiacea, natives mostly of tropical Mexico, some of Arizona and Texas. Several horticultural varieties are largely cultivated in greenhouses for their terminal cymes of long tubular white, red, or yellow, sometimes perfumed blossoms which are very useful as cut flowers during late fall and early winter. The type species are not cultivated commercially.
Bouvart, or Bouvard, boo-vär, Alexis, Swiss mathematician and astronomer: b. Haute Savoie, 27 June 1767; d. 7 June 1843. He went to Paris about 1785 to study mathematics and astronomy, and in 1793 obtained a position in the Paris Observatory. He is celebrated for his researches in the theory of planetary motions, especially those of Jupiter and Saturn. Later he took up the theory of Uranus, and was the first to suggest that the discrepancies between the old and new observations could only be reconciled by the hypothesis of another undiscovered disturbing planet, an opinion which he retained till his death, three years before the discovery of Neptune. He published Nouvelles tables de Jupiter et de Saturne' (1808); Mémoire sur les Observations Météorologiques, faites à l'Observatoire de Paris.'
Bouvé, Pauline Carrington, American novelist: b. Little Rock, Ark.; married Thomas Tracy Bouvé in 1898. Besides the historical novel Their Shadows Before' (1900) she has published 'La Toison d'Or' from the French of Amedée Achard (1900).
Bouvet, Joachim, French missionary: b. Mans, about 1662; d. Pekin, China, 28 June 1732. Sent by Louis XIV. to China to study the customs and institutions of that country, he was received with favor at the imperial court at Pekin, employed by the emperor in directing various constructions, and allowed to build a church even within the palace. He returned to France in 1697, with permission to take back with him to China as many missionaries as would undertake the voyage. He presented to Louis XIV. 49 works in the Chinese language, and in 1699 departed again for China with 10 associates, among whom was the learned Parennin. He labored for nearly 50 years with indefatigable ardor to promote the progress of the
Bouvier, John, American jurist of French birth: b. Codognan, in the department of Gard, 1787; d. Philadelphia, 18 Nov. 1851. He was of a Quaker family, which emigrated to this country and settled in Philadelphia, when he was in his 15th year. He obtained employment for several years in a book store, became a citizen of the United States in 1812, published a newspaper for a short time at Brownsville, in the western part of Pennsylvania, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1818. During his studies he made a complete analysis of Blackstone's Commentaries. In 1822 he began the practice of law in Philadelphia, in which city he resided till his death. He published, in 1839, a 'Law Dictionary, adapted to the Constitution and Laws of the United States of America, and of the several States of the American Union,' lished a new edition of Bacon's Abridgement the fruit of 10 years' labor. In 1841 he pubof the Law.' His greatest work, published two months before his death, was the Institutes of American Law.'
Bovee, George, American politician: b. Saint James, La., 1840; d. El Paso, Tex., 1903. He was one of the first native whites to join the Republican party. He was elected Secretary of State in 1868, but quarrelled with Gov. War-moth, the head of the administration, and it was this quarrel and the removal of Bovee by Warmoth which led to the political complications in Louisiana, and the dual State government of 1872 to 1876.
Boves, Jose Tomas, military adventurer in Spanish America; d. 5 Dec. 1814. He was born in Castile, and of the lowest extraction. At the age of 30 he was employed as a naval officer to guard the American coast, but betrayed his trust, and was condemned and imprisoned for bribery and prevarication. After his release, he joined the royal forces, but began to wage war on his own account after the defeat of Cagigal at Maturin. Boves established himself at Calabozo, Venezuela, and with 500 men, many of whom were slaves, defeated Mariño, the dictator of the eastern provinces. He defeated the independents twice, slaughtered all his prisoners, and gained for his army the name of the Infernal Division. He was defeated by Rivas, and a part of his army, being taken captive, were put to death; but he quickly recovered his strength, resumed the offensive, and in 1814 defeated Bolivar and Mariño at La Puerta. The struggle was prolonged with alternate successes and reverses, and with incessant cruelties. Boves advanced toward Valencia, where the independents were strongly fortified, and after a blockade, forced the town to capitulate. To give a more solemn sanction to the terms of capitulation, a mass was celebrated between the two armies,
and at the moment of the elevation, the royalist general promised a strict and faithful observance of the treaty; but having entered the town, he ordered the republican officers and a large number of the soldiers to be shot. Boves was again victorious at Anguita, and obliged Bolivar to retreat to Carthagena. He now entered Caracas, and shortly after gained a new victory, and killed or wounded 1,500 of the independents. His last triumph was at Urica; he was struck by a lance, and died upon the field of battle. His funeral was celebrated amid bloody commotion, while his troops were putting to death the men, women, and children whom they had made prisoners.
Bovey, Henry Taylor, Canadian engineer: b. Devonshire, England. He was educated at Cambridge University and took up the profession of civil engineering. He was appointed professor of civil engineering and applied mechanics in McGill University in Montreal in 1887 and has since lived in Canada. He is a member of many professional societies both in England, Canada, and the United States, and is the author of Applied Mechanics (1882); 'Theory of Structures and Strength of Materials (1893); 'Hydraulics' (1895).
Bovidæ, one of the most extensive and important families of mammals, characterized pre-eminently by the possession of hollow persistent horns in both sexes, and the form of digestive apparatus which involves chewing the cud. The family consists of the large herbivorous animals with cloven hoofs, which are most prominent as game, and which have supplied nearly all our domestic animals, except horses and camels. This family includes all of the ruminants, except the deer, giraffes, and pronghorn, and embraces five sections or sub-families, namely the antelopes (Antilopina); the goats (Caprine); the sheep (Ovina); the musk-ox (Ovibovina); and the oxen (Bovina). Although in a general way the members of these sections are easily recognized, all are connected by intermediate examples whose position is assigned with difficulty, so that a general structural likeness covers even such different examples as the delicate antelopes and the heavy cattle. A conspicuous common character is found in the nature of the horns, which gave the name Cavicornia to the group in the early classifications. These horns are always in pairs, and consist of sheaths of horn grow ing from the skin and covering "cores," which are protuberances of bone from the frontal bones of the skull, varying in form in the different groups, and contain hollow spaces, which are extensions of the frontal sinuses. These horns begin to grow soon after the animal is born, and increase until they attain their full size with the maturity of the individual; with very few exceptions they are worn by both sexes, but those of the males, especially among sheep, are often considerably larger and more effective as weapons than those of the females. No animal outside of this family possesses hollow horns of this character, except the pronghorn, and in this case they are branched, and are annually shed, neither of which conditions ever occurs among the Bovidæ.
The Bovide are distributed throughout the whole world, except Australia and South America. They are in the main gregarious, and where
the nature of their habitat permits, as on the plains inhabited by most antelopes and certain bison, they gather into enormous herds. The sheep, goats, and some of the antelopes, are confined to mountain ranges; most of the oxen dwell in forests; and the musk-ox is restricted to Arctic lands. Most of these animals, however, show great adaptability to new climates and conditions, have a high degree of variability, and are susceptible of taming and domestication. In consequence they have furnished to mankind the most important of his aids to agriculture, as the cattle, sheep, and goats, which he has been able to take with him to every part of the world, to train to his service, the great resources of food and clothing, which or to develop by careful improvement into and the names of the various groups and species they have become. See DOMESTIC ANIMALS, composing the family.
Bovines, Flanders, a village within a short distance of Lille, celebrated for the memorable victory gained by Philip Augustus of France, over Otho IV. of Germany, and his allies, 27 July 1214. Philip of Valois defeated here, in 1340, 10,000 English troops; and, on 17 and 18 May 1794, the French here defeated the Austrians.
Bovino, Italy, (anciently Bovinum), a fortified town in the province of Foggia, 20 miles south southwest of Foggia, near the Cervaro: the seat of a bishopric, suffragan to Benevento. It has a cathedral, two parish churches, and several convents. The Spaniards were defeated
here by the Imperialists in 1734. Pop. 7,613.
Bow, the earliest instrument known, and the most generally diffused, among all savage and barbarous people for the propulsion of missiles in the chase or in war. There are two forms of the bow, the long-bow and the crossbow, the former of which is the earlier, the more general, and by far the more celebrated, as being the weapon of the famous English archers of the Middle Ages, who were popularly said to carry at their belts the lives of fourand-twenty Scots, that being the number of clothyard arrows in their quivers. The longbow passed out of use as a military weapon with the improvement of firearms; but there were men yet alive in the beginning of this century who remembered that the Highlanders, in the Jacobite rising of 1715, carried bows and arrows; and at the capture of Paris, in 1814, Bashkirs and Circassians, in the service of Russia, were seen in the streets of that city, armed in chain-mail, with bow-cases and quivers. Some of the North American Indians, especially the Comanches and the Apaches were very expert with the bow. Whatever the substance of which the bow is made, whether of wood, horn or steel, its figure is nearly the same in all countries, having generally two inflexions, between which, in the place where the arrow is fixed, is a right line. The Grecian bow was somewhat in the form of the letter Σ: in drawing it, the hand was brought back to the right breast, and not to the ear. The Scythian bow was distinguished for its remarkable curvature, which was nearly semi-circular; that of the modern Tartars is similar to it. The materials of bows have been different in different countries. The Persians and Indians made them of reeds. The Lycian bows were made of