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verted into promenades, and the ditch into an ornamental sheet of water. The cathedral, built in 1148-1680, and restored in 1875, the Protestant churches of St. Elizabeth and St. Mary Magdalene, the Rathhaus or city-hall, a Gothic structure of the 14th and 15th centuries, the municipal buildings, the government buildings, the building for the provincial diet, the royal residence, court-houses, exchange, and university buildings are among the most remarkable buildings. The university was founded in 1702 as a Roman Catholic institution, with which was combined the Protestant university at Frankforton-the-Oder, transferred hither in 1811. The university has attached to it a museum of natural history, a cabinet of antiquities, a library of 320,000 volumes, including many old works and manuscripts, an observatory, a picture gallery, a botanic garden, etc. The number of students is about 1,500. There are numerous other educational institutions, as well as hospitals and asylums. Breslau carries on an extensive trade in the products and manufactures of Silesia, principally in corn, wool, metals, glass, coal, and timber. The Oder is navigable and there is a connection with Berlin by the Oder-Spree Canal. The industries comprise iron-founding, bell-founding, the manufacture of machinery, railway carriages, organs, and other musical instruments, cigars, oil, spirits, etc., brewing, and glass-painting. There are two annual wool-fairs, which are largely attended. Breslau was the seat of a bishopric by the year 1000; an independent duchy from 1163 to 1335; was ceded to Austria, after many wars and calamities, in 1527. It was conquered by Frederick II. of Prussia in 1741. It was from this time the scene of frequent warfare, being successively attacked by Austrians, French, Russians, and Prussians. It was twice occupied by the French, in 1807 and 1813. Its fortifications were destroyed by Napoleon in 1807, but it finally remained in the hands of Prussia. Pop. (1895) 405,041; (1900) 422,738; (1903) 433,350.

Bressani, Francesco Giuseppe, frän-ches'kō joo-sep'pě brès-sä'ne, Italian missionary: b. Rome 1612; d. Florence 9 Sept. 1672. He labored during nine years among the Huron Indians of Canada, was captured and ill treated by the Iroquois, and afterward sold to the Dutch and kept in bondage until 1644, when he was ransomed. On his return to Italy, he published a book on the Jesuit missionaries in Canada.

Bressay, bres'sa, one of the Shetland Islands, lying east of the mainland, and separated from it by Bressay Sound, about six miles long and one to three in breadth. Its line of coast is rocky and deeply indented; the interior is hilly, rising in the Wart of Bressay to 742 feet, and is to a great extent covered with peat-moss. There are a number of small streams and small lakes. On the south there are three bold headlands, the Ord, the Bard, and the Hammar. The inhabitants are mostly crofters, sailors in the merchant service, or fishermen. Hosiery is the only manufacture. Bressay Sound forms a safe harbor (Lerwick Harbor), one mile or more in breadth, having Lerwick on its west side. Pop. (1891) 802; (1901) 1,686.

Brest, a fortified seaport and naval station of France, in the department of Finistère, in the former province of Brittany, situated at the

mouth of the Penfeld, 320 miles south by west from Paris. It has one of the best harbors in France, and a safe roadstead, capable of containing 500 men-of-war in 8, 10, and 15 fathoms at low water, and it is the chief station of the French marine. The coast on both sides is well fortified. The entrance to the roads, known as Le Goulet, is narrow and difficult, with covered rocks that make it dangerous to those not well acquainted with it. There are immense magazines, workshops, barracks, roperies, etc., and the dockyard employs from 8,000 to 9,000_men. Several docks are cut in the solid rock. Brest, which in the Middle Ages was of so much importance that it was said, "He is not Duke of Brittany who is not lord of Brest," had sunk by the beginning of the reign of Louis XIII. to little more than a village. Richelieu resolved to make it the seat of a vast naval arsenal, but little was done till the beginning of the reign of Louis XIV., when Duquesne came to superintend the works. Vauban followed him, and fortified it. In 1694 the combined fleets of England and Holland disembarked a force which attempted to take Brest, but was repulsed with great loss. On 1 June 1794 the French fleet was beaten off Brest by the British, under Howe, who took from them six ships of the line, and sunk a seventh. The manufacturing industry of Brest is inconsiderable, but its commerce is extensive. Its chief exports are cereals; its principal imports colonial produce and naval stores. Pop. (1896) 74,538.

Brest-Litovski, brěst-le-tōfs'ke, a fortified town of Russia, in the government of Grodno, Litovski was a possession of Poland till 1795, on the Bug, 120 miles east of Warsaw. Brestand is one of the oldest Slav towns. The place is an important railroad centre and of considerable commercial importance because of its situation, and has a large trade in cloths, leather, and soap. It is a fortress of the first rank, with vast magazines and military stores. Pop. (1897) 46,542.

Bretagne. See BRITTANY.

Bretèche, a name common to several wooden, crenellated, and roofed erections, used in the Middle Ages in sieges by the assailants to afford protection while they were undermining the walls, and by the besieged to form defenses behind breaches. Later, the name was given to a sort of roofed wooden balcony or cage, crenellated and machicolated, attached by corbels, sometimes immediately over a gateway.

Breteuil, Louis Charles Auguste le Tonnelier, loo-e ô-goost le ton-nel-yā brě-te-y' (BARON DE), French diplomatist: b. 1730; d. 2 Nov. 1807. After a period of military service he became in 1758 minister plenipotentiary at Copenhagen, and afterward occupied similar posts in Sweden, Austria, Naples, and again in Vienna. His embassy to Vienna explains his attachment to the Queen Marie Antoinette. As minister and secretary of state after Necker's dismissal in 1789, he was a zealous defender of the monarchy; he was therefore considered as one of the greatest enemies of the Revolution. After the capture of the Bastile, he escaped by a hasty flight. In 1790 Louis XVI. entrusted him with secret negotiations for his restoration to the throne, at the principal northern courts. The convention issued a decree against


him. In 1802 he returned, with the permission husband of a sister of Mary, and therefore the of the government, to France. cousins of Jesus.

Brethren, Bohemian, a Christian sect of Bohemia, formed from the remains of the stricter sort of Hussites in the latter half of the 15th century. They took the Scriptures as the ground of their doctrines throughout. Being persecuted, they fled into Poland and Prussia. See BOHEMIAN BRETHREN; MORAVIAN CHURCH; UNITED BRETHREN.

Brethren of the Christian Schools, an order established at Rheims by the Saint Jean Baptiste de La Salle (q.v.). The object of the order was to provide instruction for the poorer classes of the population, and hence the name. The members take upon themselves the vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience. Their costume is a coarse black cassock, and a small collar or band around the neck, for the house, and a hooded cloak and a wide hat for outdoor purposes. Their teaching is mainly rudimentary, although in some of their schools Latin and the higher mathematics form part of the course. They have modified their instruction from time to time to make it meet the wants of the classes whom they teach. Thus, in 1831 they opened evening schools for adults, wherein they received and taught mechanics and other poor laborers who had no time to devote to learning in the day. The Brethren of the Christian Schools are sometimes improperly called the "Christian Brothers." The latter have nearly the same rule and object, but form an independent order. See BROTHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS; ORDERS, RELIGIOUS.

Brethren of the Free Spirit, a sect which sprang up on the upper Rhine near the beginning of the 13th century. They are frequently confounded with the Lollards, Beguards, or Beguins. They held that the universe was a divine emanation; that man, so far as he gave himself to the contemplative life, was a Christ, and as such, free from law, human or divine (Romans viii. 2, 14). Many edicts were published against this sect, but it continued to exist under various names, such as Picards and Adamites, till about the first quarter of the 15th


Brethren of the Holy Trinity, a religious society, founded in France near the close of the 12th century, whose members pledged themselves to give a third part of their revenues to procuring the redemption of Christians who had fallen captive to the infidels, and were in Mohammedan slavery. It was established by John of Matha, a Parisian theologian, and Felix de Valois.

Brethren of the Lord, The. Great controversy has existed concerning the expressions in the New Testament relating to the "brethren of Jesus," and theologians have been divided on the question of the perpetual virginity of Mary the mother of Jesus. The term "brethren of the Lord" occurs but once in the New Testament (1 Cor. ix. 5), but there are several other passages that refer apparently to actual brothers of Jesus (Gal. i. 19; Matt. xii. 46-50, etc.). Some have claimed that the brethren referred to were later sons of Mary by Joseph, the reputed father of Jesus; others have contended that they were sons of Joseph by a former marriage, and others again have sought to prove that these brethren were sons of Alphæus, the

Brethren of the Strict Observance, the stricter Franciscans, or Regular Observatines.


Bretigny, brě-ten-ye, a village of France in the department of Eure-et-Loire, six miles southeast of Chartres, on the Paris & R.R. By the treaty of Bretigny, concluded on 8 May 1360, between Edward III. of England and John II. of France, the latter, who had been taken prisoner at the battle of Poitiers, recovered his liberty on a ransom of 3,000,000 crowns, to be paid in six years. Edward renounced his claim to the crown of France, and relinquished a portion of his conquests and possessions in that country, including Anjou and Maine, and the greater part of Normandy; receiving the cession in independent sovereignty of the duchy of Aquitaine, with all its dependencies; Gascony, Poitou, Saintonge, Aunis, Agenois, Périgord, Limousin, Quercy, Rouergue, Angoumois, together with Calais, the counties of Ponthieu and Guines, and the viscounty of Montreuil.

Breton, Jean Baptiste Joseph, zhon bäptest zhō-zef bre-ton, French journalist: b. Paris 16 Nov. 1777; d. 6 Jan. 1852. His public career as journalist and stenographer was nearly parallel with representative government in France. He was present as stenographer at the session of 10 Aug. 1792, when the power passed from the hands of an individual to those of an assembly; and of 2 Dec. 1851, when it passed from the hands of an assembly to those of an individual. His services were also in constant requisition at the courts as an interpreter for English, German, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, and Flemish suitors. He was a frequent contributor to the 'Dictionnaire de la Conversation,' and among other papers wrote the article on stenography.

Breton, Jules Adolphe, zhül ä-dolf, French painter: b. Courrieres 1 May 1827. He was educated at St. Omer and at Douai, and trained as a painter under Félix Devigne at Ghent, and at Drölling's atelier in Paris. The subjects of his earlier pictures, such as Misère de Désespoir) (1849), are taken from the French revolutionary period; but he soon turned to the scenes from peasant life which he has treated in a most poetic and suggestive manner, with an admirable union of style with realism. In 1853 he exhibited 'La Retour des Moissonneurs' and in 1855 his celebrated Les Glaneuses. He is represented in the Luxembourg by La Bénédiction des Blés) (1857), admirable for its rendering of sunlight; Le Rappel des Glaneuses' (1859); and 'Le Soir (1861). His later works are simpler in their component parts and larger in the scale of their figures, and of these La Fontaine' is a typical example. Breton is also known as a poet.

Breton, de los Herreros, bra-tōn' dã lōs ā-rā'ros, Don Manuel, Spanish dramatist: b. Quel, province of Logroño 19 Dec. 1800; d. Madrid 13 Nov. 1873. He was the most notable Spanish poet of the first half of the 19th century. He gave to the Spanish stage 150 plays, some of them original, others derived from or translated from ancient Spanish sources, French or Italian. In him the old French comedy finds not so much an imitator as its last true representative. Among his best original


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Bretschneider, brět'shni-der, Gottfried von, German writer: b. Gera, 6 May 1739; d. 1 Nov. 1810. He was educated at the institute of Herrnhuters at Ebersdorf, entered the army as a cornet in the regiment of Count Brühl, was present at the battle of Kolin, and afterward became captain of a Prussian freecorps, and was made prisoner by the French. During his forced stay in France he acquainted himself with the language, and with the spirit of the people. On his return he was appointed governor of Usingen in Nassau. This government being shortly suppressed, he traveled in England and France, and became associated with Count Vergennes, who employed him in diplomatic missions. He returned to Germany in 1772, and was shortly afterward engaged in the service of Austria, where he was first named vice-governor of the banat of Temesvar. This banat having been incorporated in Hungary in 1778, he obtained the appointment of librarian to the University of Buda. Here his hostility to the monks, and especially to the Jesuits, led him into trouble; although the Emperor Joseph II., who held the same views, declared himself his protector. He was obliged to retire from Buda, and was appointed librarian at Lemberg, and also counselor to the government. In 1809 he retired with the title of aulic counselor. His views were liberal and somewhat sceptical, and with his active opposition to the monastic orders, gained him many enemies. His principal works are: Reise nach London und Paris' (1817); Almanach der Heiligen' (for the year 1788); 'Wallers Leben und Sitten' (1793).

Bretschneider, Karl Gottlieb, German theologian: b. Gersdorf, Saxony, 11 Feb. 1776; d. Gotha, 22 Jan. 1848. He studied theology at Leipsic, was appointed pastor at Schneeberg in 1807, general superintendent at Gotha in 1816, and afterward councilor of the Upper Consistory there. Bretschneider established a reputation as a sound and judicious thinker of rationalistic bias, and his theological writings are admitted to have a permanent value. In 1820 appeared his Probabilia de Evangelii et Epistolarum Johannis Apostoli Indole et Origine,' an attack upon the Johannine authorship from internal evidence, and in 1824 his 'Lexicon Manuale GræcoLatinum in Libros Novi Testamenti. Another work of importance is his 'Handbuch der Dogmatik (4th ed. 1838). Bretschneider also wrote on many other theological questions and


Bret'ten, a town of Baden, Germany, the birthplace of Melanchthon, 16 miles eastnortheast of Carlsruhe by rail. The house in which Melanchthon was born belongs now to a foundation bearing his name for the support of poor students, established in 1861. A monument was erected in 1867. Pop. (1900) 4,800.

Bretts and Scots, Laws of, the name given in the 13th century to a code of laws in use among the Celtic tribes in Scotland, the Scots being the Celts north of the Forth and Clyde, and the Bretts being the remains of the British inhabitants of the kingdom of Cambria, Cumbria, or Strathclyde, and Reged. Edward I. issued in 1305 an ordinance abolishing the usages of the Scots and Bretts. Only a fragment of them has been preserved.

Bretwalda, brět'väl-da, a title applied to one of the Anglo-Saxon tribal chiefs or kings, who, it is supposed, was from time to time chosen by the other chiefs, nobility, and ealdormen to be a sort of dictator in their wars with the Britons. The following are mentioned by Bede, but Hallam and other historians doubt whether any sovereign in those early times possessed such authority: 492 A.D., Ella, king of Sussex; 571, Ceawlin, king of Wessex; 594, Ethelbert, king of Kent; 615, Redwald, king of the West Angles; 623. Edwin, king of Deira; 634, Oswald, king of Bernicia; 643, Oswy, king

of Bernicia.


Breughel, bré-Hěl, the name of a celebrated Dutch family of painters, the first of whom adopted this name from a village not far from Breda. This was Pieter Breughel, also called, from the character and subject of most of his representations, the "Droll" or the "Peasants' Breughel." He was born in 1510 (according to Mechel, in 1530), was a pupil of Peter Koeck van Aelst, traveled in Italy and France copying the beauties of nature, and after his return fixed his residence at Antwerp, where he was received into the Academy of Painters in that place. He subsequently married the daughter of his instructor, Koeck, and removed to Brussels, where he died in 1570 (according to some in 1590). In his rural weddings, his rustic feasts and dances, he strikingly represents the gaiety of the villagers, as he himself had frequently observed them, in disguise, in his youth. He also etched, but many of his pictures have been engraved by others. He left two sonsand Jan. The former (called the Younger ing contrasts, painted many scenes in which Breughel), preferring subjects affording strikdevils, witches, or robbers are the principal figures. This particular turn of genius procured him the name of "Hell Breughel.» Among his pieces are: 'Orpheus Playing on his Lyre Before the Infernal Deities, and also The ture hangs in the gallery of Florence. The secTemptation of St. Anthony. The former picond brother, Jan, was distinguished by his landhe received the title of "Velvet Breughel." He scapes and small figures. From his usual dress also painted for other masters landscapes as backgrounds to their pieces, and sometimes litartist. In connection with Rubens he repretle figures in them. He was a very prolific sented Adam and Eve in Paradise. The figures in this picture are painted by Rubens. This piece, his Four Elements, also Vertumnus and Pomona,' which were all executed jointly with Rubens, are among his principal performances. He is said to have been born in 1568; other authorities say 1569, 1575, or 1589. visited Italy, and enriched his imagination with beautiful scenery. He is said to have died in 1642, or by other authorities 1625. Other members of this family, belonging to a later period,



are Ambrose, who was director of the Antwerp Academy of Painting between 1635 and 1670; and Abraham, who for a time resided in Italy, and died in 1690; the brother of the latter, John Baptist, who died in Rome; and Abraham's son, Caspar Breughel, known as a painter of flowers and fruits.

Breve, brev, a note of the third degree of length, and formerly of a square figure, as; but now made of an oval shape, with a line perpendicular to the stave on each of its sides: The breve, in its simple state, that is, without a dot after it, is equal in duration to one quarter of a large, or to two semibreves, and is then called imperfect; but, when dotted, it is equal to three eighths of a large, or to three semibreves, which being the greatest length it can assume, it is then called perfect. It is now chiefly used at the close of passages or compositions.

Brevet', a term borrowed from the French, and applied in the United States and Great Britain to rank in the army conferred upon officers on account of special and long service, and higher than that for which regimental pay is received. Thus a brevet-major serves as captain in his regiment, and draws pay as such.

Breviarium of Eutropius, the only existing work by Eutropius. It is a treatise in 10 brief books or chapters, recounting the history of Rome from the foundation of the city to the time of Valens, 364 A.D. Its style is notably good and the work has been much drawn upon by later writers. The best critical edition of The Breviarium' is that by Droysen.

Breviary (from the Latin breviarium), a summary or abridgment of prayers. The breviary is the book containing the daily offices which all who are in orders, or enjoy any Catholic benefice, are obliged, to read. It is an abridgment of similar offices previously in use. The breviary contains prayers or offices to be used at the seven canonical hours of matins and lauds, prime, tierce, sext, nones, vespers, and compline. It is not known at what time the use of the breviary was first enjoined. In the Acts of the Apostles we find the third, sixth, and ninth hours especially mentioned. From Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Cyprian, and others, we learn that the observance of these hours was general among Christians. St. Basil, St. Jerome, and St. Ambrose speak of the seven hours called canonical. The services in use in the convents and monasteries in the early ages were very exhaustive from their great length. A council held at Tours in 567 enjoined that matins and vespers should never have less than 12 psalms each, and that the former should have 30 in Lent. It was under Pope Gregory VII. (1073-85) that the abridgment of the offices began to be considered necessary. In 1241 a breviary revised by Haymon obtained the approbation of Gregory IX., and was introduced in all the churches of Rome under Nicholas III. In 1568 Pius V. published a breviary which has remained, with few modifications, to the present day. The Roman breviary, however, was never fully accepted by the Gallican Church, which persisted in maintaining its own offices. The Ultramontane party there had long struggled in vain for the introduction of the Roman breviary, but from 1840 to 1864, by a final and vigorous effort, the opposition of the Gal

lican party was overcome, and the uniformity of usage generally established, though to the dissatisfaction of a large number of French Catholics.

The Psalms occupy a large place in the breviary, the order of the reading being so arranged that in general 100 psalms shall be recited in a ment and from the fathers have the next place. week. Passages from the Old and New TestaAll the services are in Latin, and their arrangement, which is adapted to the various seasons and festivals of the Church, is very complex. The English Book of Common Prayer is based on the Roman breviary. There is a translation of the breviary into English by the Marquis of Bute (1880).

Breviary of Alaric, a compendium of Roman law dated from the first decade of the 6th century and compiled at the command of Alaric II., king of the Visigoths. It consisted of abridgements of the code and novels of Theodosius, the institutes of Gaius, etc., and contained a detailed commentary styled the Interpretatio.' It was intended for the Roman subjects of the Visigothic ruler, and must not be confused with the Forum Judicum' or 'Judicum Liber,' which Alaric put forth for his barbarian vassals. See Lee, "Historical Jurisprudence


Brevipen'nes, a family or subdivision of birds, but occupying a different position in different systems. Cuvier makes it a family of the order Gralla or waders. In more modern systems it corresponds to the order of Cursorial birds or Ratite. It includes at least two genera, the ostrich and the cassowary. The Dodo and The BreviApteryx are also referred to it. pennes have a resemblance in several of their distinctive characteristics to Their pectoral muscles are reduced to extreme tenuity, and the sternum has no ridge, while and thickness. They are thus fitted for walkthe muscles of the thighs are of great strength ing or running, rather than for flying. As their name implies their wings are short.

the Gallinaceæ.

Brevoort', James Renwick, American artist: b. Westchester County, N. Y., 20 July 1832. His art studies were made chiefly in Europe, where he spent several years sketching scenes in England, Holland, and Italy. In 1861 he was elected an associate of the National Academy, and in 1863 a full member. Since 1872 he has been its professor of perspective. His specialty as a painter is landscape work, and the following pictures of his are well known: 'Lake of Como (1878); Storm on English Moor' (1882); New England Scene'; Morning in Early Winter' (1884); The Wild November Comes at Last'; Windy Day on a Moor' (1886).

Brewer, David Josiah, American jurist: b. Smyrna, Asia Minor, 20 June 1837. He graduated at Yale College 1856, at Albany Law School 1858. He studied law in the office of his uncle, David Dudley Field, and was admitted to the bar in New York in 1858. Removing to Kansas, he became prominent in his profession. He was judge of the supreme court of Kansas 1870-81, and was appointed United States judge for the 8th circuit in 1884. He rendered a memorable decision on the Kansas Prohibition Law, affirming the right of liquor manufacturers to compensation, for which he was


severely criticised by the Prohibitionists. President Harrison elevated him to the supreme court of the United States in 1889. He was made a member of the Venezuelan commission by President Cleveland in 1896, and was chosen its chairman.

Brewer, John Hyatt, American musician: b. Brooklyn, N. Y., 1856. He studied piano, organ, and theory under local teachers, particularly Dudley Buck. He has filled the position of organist at the Church of the Messiah and the Clinton Avenue Congregational Church, Brooklyn, and since 1881 at the Lafayette Avenue Presbyterian Church in that borough, where he is also professor of vocal music at Adelphi College. His compositions include church music, vocal music, and works for the piano, organ, and orchestra.

Brewer, Leigh Richmond, American Protestant Episcopal bishop: b. Berkshire, Vt., 20 Jan. 1839. He was ordained in 1867, and after serving as rector of Grace Church, Carthage, N. Y., 1866-72, and Trinity Church, Watertown, N. Y., 1872-80, was consecrated missionary bishop of Montana in the year last named.

Brewer, Thomas Mayo, American ornithologist: b. Boston, Mass., 21 Nov. 1814; d. 23 Jan. 1880. He was graduated at Harvard College in 1835, and was editor of the Boston Atlas in 1840. He edited Wilson's 'Ornithology and Birds of North America, and, in conjunction with Baird and Ridgeway, wrote A History of North American Birds."

Brewer, William Henry, American agricultural scientist: b. Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 14 Sept. 1828. He was graduated from the Sheffield Scientific School, New Haven, in 1852, and has been professor of agriculture there from 1864. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences from 1880, of the Connecticut State board of health from 1892, and of the State board of agriculture for a long period. He has been one of the most prominent American leaders in agricultural research and is a valued authority on all related topics. Besides contributing to the 'Report on Cereal Production' in the United States Tenth Census (1883), he has edited the 'Botany of California' (1886).

Brew'erton, Henry, American soldier: b. New York, 1801; d. Washington, D. C., 17 April 1879. He was graduated with the class of 1819 at West Point. Commissioned second lieutenant in the corps of engineers, he first served as assistant in determining the 45th degree of north latitude at Rouse's Point, N. Y. He was assistant and professor of engineering at West Point (1819-21). Thereafter he was almost continuously engaged in such important engineering works as repairing the fortifications in New York harbor, construction of Fort Jackson, La., of Fort Adams, Newport, R. I., of the defenses of Charleston harbor, S. C., of the fortifications and improvements of Baltimore harbor (1861-4), and of Forts Monroe and Wool, for the defense of Hampton Roads, Va. He was brevetted brigadier-general in the United States army, 13 March 1865, for long, faithful, and meritorious services, and was retired from active service 7 March 1867, "having been borne on the Army Register more than 45 years." Dickinson College conferred the degree of LL.D. upon him, 8 July 1847.

Brewing and Malting. Brewing is the process of making fermented drinks, such as ale, beer, cider, etc. See BEER.

MALTING. Malting is the preparing of cereals by germination or growth for the process of mashing. Barley is the grain commonly used for making malt for lager beer, ale, stout, vinegar and yeast-makers' or distillers' mash, etc., while wheat malt is used to a large extent in the production of weiss beer.

The barley is first cleaned in order to remove foreign seeds, straw, broken kernels, etc., by means of sieves and blower fans. As the character of the beer depends largely upon that of the malt, and as the latter's character can be determined during malting, it follows that there are various methods of details in malting. The following are the general manipulations employed:

Steeping.-Malting is in reality an artificial or forced growth of a seed, the changes taking place being similar to those when the seed is planted in the soil. The first requisite is moisture. This is given to the grain by placing it in steep tanks containing water of a certain temperature. Steep tanks are cylindrical iron vessels having conical bottoms so that all the grain will drop out when tank is emptied. They are generally placed on the top floor of the malthouse. The grain remains in the steep tank until it has absorbed the desired amount of water, the time differing for different kinds and quality of grain or the process of the maltster. For barley the duration of steeping is generally from 36 to 60 hours, averaging about 48 hours. house usually consists of several floors. The Growing or Germinating Floors.-The maltwater in the steep tank is drained off and the

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Floor Malt House with Power Shovel, and Bucket Elevator for Green Malt.

wet barley dropped upon these floors below. The barley is now spread in heaps of about 12 to 14 inches high (occupying rather more than one third and less than one half of the floor space). The barley now dries out somewhat and begins to sprout or grow and small hair-like fibres, called rootlets, begin to show. As heat is generated during growth, which is undesirable above a certain temperature, and as further

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