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site. Mr. Hardcastle, of Bradshaw Hall, explained what he knew of the history of the cross. His belief was that it had been a market cross, a fair or market having formerly been held in the adjoining field, then unfenced from the road. Some ten or fifteen years ago the cross, then in a very dilapidated state, was pulled down in the night time by some people in the vain expectation of finding treasure beneath. Afterwards, Mr. Hardcastle and the lord of the manor (Mr. Isherwood) joined in re-erecting and putting it into thorough repair, a work which involved the replacement of two blocks of stone by two new ones and the use of iron clamps. They could not find any head belonging to the cross, or hear that it ever had one.

THE TURTON CROSS.-The words "pedestal of stone cross" occur on the ordnance map, in the little village of Turton, about four miles north of Bolton-le-Moors, near the old grammar school, and about half a mile north of Turton Tower, at a height of about six hundred feet above sea-level. The stocks are shown on the map near the cross.


On the moors the words 'Druidical circle" appear on the map one mile west of the cross, at a height of one thousand and seventy-five feet above the sea-level, "Tumulus" at the same distance to the east of it, and "Windy Harbour" about half a mile to the north-east.

The vicar of Turton gives the following particulars about the cross:

I have been trying to gain more information about the cross in Chapeltown [Turton and Chapeltown are the same] than I already possessed, but have failed. However, I remember very well, in the open space in front of Chetham Arms, a stone pedestal on two steps with stocks by its side, and a large sycamore tree overshadowing all. The pedestal was never surmounted by a cross, but a sundial, which had long ceased to

exist. This was removed by Mr. Kay, the then owner of Turton Tower estate, about 1845 or 1846, and placed in his grounds, where it now stands, or did a little time since. What became of the stocks I never knew. There was a Druidical circle on Chetham Close in fair order when I came to Turton (1879), now it has gone like many other interesting objects. I did all I could to persuade Mr. Kay, jun., to rail it round, and as far as possible set up the stones which were lying about.

THE "TOWNE-CROSSES," HEATON.-The township of Heaton, or a portion of it, appears to have been defined by crosses, which were in existence in the year 1583. An ancestor of Sir Francis Anderton, of Lydiate (we are told by the Rev. T. E. Gibson in Lydiate Hall and its Associations) had purchased land in Heaton in that year in the possession of Katherine Heton and others. The indorsement of the deed certifies that "Bernard Anderton had seven days after entered on the land lying next to the 'Town-Crosses,' and claimed the same for Christopher Anderton."

BROMLEY CROSS.-These words occur on the map about two and a quarter miles north-north-east from Bolton-le-Moors Market Place on the 1844 ordnance map. The railway was not then made. There is now a station (Bromley Cross) near this spot, and the words may record the site of an ancient cross.

KERSHAW CROSS.-The words, "pedestal of stone cross" (the pedestal is in situ, or was so recently), occur on the map three and a quarter miles north-north-east from Bolton Parish Church.

The words, "windy harbour" occur on the map on the Roman road from Manchester one mile in a north-westerly direction from Turton Tower, at a height of about six hundred and fifty feet above the sea-level. These words

occur again on the map about two and a half miles northeast by north of Bolton Market Place, at a height of six hundred and eight feet above the sea-level.

The word "hillock" is shown on the map, filling a deep loop of the river Tonge, one-eighth of a mile north of Hall-i'th'-Wood.

The estimation in which the ancient market crosses of the country were once held is shown by the fact that at a spot two miles east from Bolton Market Place, on the road between Bolton and Bury, the distance is marked to Bolton Cross and to Bury Cross.

THE PILGRIM'S CROSS.-The words "Whowell Cross or Pilgrim's Cross" in Ancient Gothic letters occur on the map, at a height of one thousand two hundred and nine feet above the sea-level, on Holcombe Moor, at a spot distant about one and a half miles north-west from the town of Ramsbottom. The cross with its shaft long ago disappeared, but the venerable and massive stone-base was an object of pilgrimage to many antiquaries and others until the month of August, 1901, when it was wantonly destroyed by some unknown persons. This stone measured about three feet across the top, and was socketted for a large and lofty cross.

This ancient monument stood on the easterly side of an old footpath leading over these desolate moors. The path runs nearly due north and south. The site is on the south-easterly slope of Bull Hill, which rises to a height of one thousand three hundred and seventy-one feet above the sea-level. Mr. W. Harrison, in reporting the outrage to the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, writes: "In very early documents allusions are made to this cross. Pilgrim Crosse-slack, in the forest of Tottington, is mentioned in a charter, dated from Ightenhill, in 22

Henry II., A.D. 1176, and Pilgrim Cross-shaw is referred to in the charter of 1225, by which Roger de Montbegon granted land hard by to Monk Bretton Priory. Baines also refers to the cross as one where the pilgrims reposed themselves and offered up their religious services in the pilgrimages to Whalley. It was, likewise, no doubt, very useful as a landmark, enabling travellers to keep the track which passes close by along the top of the moor."

Whittaker in his History of Whalley writes: "By a fourth charter (ibid) the same grantor conveys to the said priory [Monk Bretton, in the county of York] three acres of meadow near Pilgrim-crosse-charche, which seems to countenance an opinion that this was a resting-place of the pilgrims (see under Whalley Abbey), and that they had a chapel here for their devotions. Where this cross and chapel stood, or whether the latter were on the site of the present chapel of Holcombe, I am not informed."

Much both of a romantic and of an historical character relating to this district is to be found in a charming little book entitled Holcombe Long Ago, by the Rev. H. Dowsett, rector of Holcombe, embodying the researches referred to in a previous chapter.

BUTTER CROSS.-These words occur on the map one mile north-east by north from Rivington, in Dean Head Lane, in moorland country, six hundred and eighty-seven feet above sea-level, about one and a half miles south of the middle of Anglezark Moor.

The centre of Anglezark Moor is about one thousand feet above sea-level. Half a mile to the south-east of it is Standing Stones Hill.

The names on these moors, as in similar cases, are fanciful. Thus we have "Moses Cockers," "Sweetloves," "Old Isaac's," and "Old Kate's."

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