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a jerk or movement of the train, he would have
encountered a danger incident to his position, and
although the jerk might have been occasioned by
high and unusual speed, or other mismanagement,
still, at the most, the fault would have been mu-
tual." It is apparent from these quotations that
upon the principles laid down by that court, no
recovery could be had in the present case.
We are by no means disposed to relax in the
least degree, the just obligations or liabili ies of
railway companies, but in this case the death of
the deceased was so clearly attributable to his
own rashness that we cannot hold the company
liable in damages.
Rehearing denied.

railroads, as well as the managers of old ones, the
Gt. Western Railway of Canada.
The dividend announced during the week, for
importance of reducing the percentage of non pay-
ing weight now hauled by building lighter rolling the past half year, realises our expectations, and
stock, rather than by reducing the gauge of the must, we think, be a pleasing surprise to the Pro-
tracks, and maintaining the same relative propor-prietors, especially to those who have been led by
tion between the non paying and paying weight articles in some other papers to take a downcast
to be drawn over them. Our cars, especially view of this very excellent railway property.
our improved" passenger coaches, are both too The dividend is 5 per cent. per annum, free of
heavy and too costly, and in this there must be a income tax, and compares thus
radical reform. In this matter we may follow with Half-year ending-
P.c. per annum.
safety the lead of the British railroad engineers, July, 1971
who have generally rejected the narrow gauge sys
64 1869
tem as impracticable, but who look with unquali-
fied favor upon the numerous roads with light
permanent way, light engines, light cars and cheap
depot accommodation, now building in different
parts of the United Kingdom. These roads are
precisely what are needed in this country as aux
iliaries and feeders to the trunk lines. They are

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The July half-year is the inferior part of the year, and having regard to this circumstance, and

the great increase in the traffic now going on, we shall not be surprised if the current half year (end.

Cheap Railroads for Cheap Freight Trans-built with the American standard gauge of 4 feeting next January) yields from 7 to 8 per cent per


can be


the whole of 1871, 6 per cent.-a pretty fair rate for "poor frozen up Canada" to turn out, and a rate that is fairer still when we consider that this Company pay (as all Companies should) their dividends free of income-tax.-Herapath, Sept. 30. The Philadelphia Ledger says that a very

it will be 7, and make the dividend for

annum. The dividend for the 2nd half of 1870 8 inches, with all parts sufficiently strong to car The sudden and remarkable popularity of the ry a maximum weight of five tons to each pair of If the current, January, 1872, dividend increase (ending January, 1871) was 6 per cent. per annum. narrow gauge system in this and other countries, wheels. Expensive tunnels, high embankments, by only as much as the July dividend just anand the rapidity with which the theories of its ad- deep cuts, costly viaducts and expensive stations nounced has increased, namely by 1 per cent. per vocates have been seized. generalized and reduc- are avoided. Such a road, it is claimed, ed to a practical demonstration in the Denver and built at an expense of $15,000 to $17,000 per mile, Rio Grande and other narrow gauge roads not yet exclusive of the cost of the land, and on this limcompleted, is due to the fact that a reduction of ited capital a comparatively small traffic transpor gauge teems to furnish a practical solution of the ted at rates considerably below the present averquestion of cheap transportation by rail. Whether age per mile, would pay a fair annual dividend. it does or not will, we think, be found to depend A line of this description. lately built under the upon the standard by which the success of the patronage of the Duke of Buckingham, cost but new system is measured. Compared with the aver $7,000 per mile. Its highest embankment is twelve heavy tonnage of soft coal for gas purposes is now age of American railroads of the standard or broad feet, and its deepest cut ten feet. The rails, weigh gauge, a cheaply built and economically managed ing 30 lbs to the yard, are secured in longitudinal being carried over the Bald Eagle Valley railroad, narrow gauge road might be found to have ef- imbers, six inches by six incnes in the cross sec- which extends from near Tyrone, on the Pennsylfected an important economy, but the compari- tion. The timbers are united by transoms at every vania railroad, to Lock Haven, on the Philadelson would scarcely be a fair one, since the aver twelve feet, held in their places by wrought iron age American railroad is neither cheaply built rods. Everything is at once light and strong, and phia and Erie road, a distance of some fifty-one nor economically operated. Most of our railroads as an important reduction in non-paying weight miles, and it adds "new railway connections south. "cost' a great deal more than is represented is effected without a proportionate reduction in ward from the Huntingdon and Broad Top Mounin the actual value of the materials and labor em the capacity of the cars, the advantages possessed tain railroad promise an early outlet for Cumberployed in construction; and, from the hollowness by such reads over those built on the narrow gauge land coal across our State to our own and a furof their financial basis, most companies owning plan are apparent at a glance. One of the most and operating railroads in this country are com- important of these advantages is that the cars of ther eastern market, to the greatly increased profpelled to declare dividends upon from 40 to 50 such a road could run upon any standard gauge its of existing roads in the connection." per cent more capital than they have anything to track, and its capacity for traffic could be at any show for. Thus built and equipped, few of them time increased without involving the necessity of are managed on good business principles or with reconstruction throughout, as is the case with nara view to rendering the community the greatest row gauge roads operating as feeders or branches amount of service at the least possible cost. The of trunk lines. The system is well worthy of competition between the companies consisting thorough trial in this country, and we would urge chiefly in a rivalry in the matter of fast trains, that that trial be made before we have gone too two miles from Buena Vista, and about ten and a and a saving of time is usually gained at the ex-deeply into the building of narrow gauge roads, half miles from Washington. At Huntington the pense of the rapid destruction of road-bed and which, at least, may only partially realize the ex-main stem branches off toward the Potomac, and rolling stock, and enormous consumption of pectations of those who are now so eager in pro- the track is laid three miles south of the prospecfuel. These conditions are not favorable to econ-jecting and so enthusiastic in building them.tive town. On the north of the Annapolis Road omy, and to realize a sufficient profit upon busi Daily Bulletin. ness done under such a ruinous system the public must be taxed, through high freights and fares, not only to pay interest upon fictitious capital, but

Canadian Pacific Railroad.

The distances are as follows:

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The track of the Baltimore and Potomac railroad is now laid about twelve miles south of the Annapolis and Elk Ridge railroad, to Muddy Hole Branch, Prince George's county, a point about

the track is laid to the Patapsco, a distance of nine miles. In all there are about twenty-five miles of the road laid.

The Boston Journal says the losses sustained at the fire in Chicago by the Michigan Cen115 tral Railroad were very light. The road was not 195 an owner of the passenger depot, and its total loss 985 was a small freight house which was destroyed to..985 gether with its contents, which however were fully covered by insurance in solvent companies.

Montreal to Ottawa....
Ottawa to Mattawan..
Mattawan to Fort Garry.
Fort Garry to Yellow Head Pass.
Thence to the limits of British Columbia. 52
Route by the Upper Fraser (British) Col-
umbia) by "short cut".

The report of the surveyor employed to run the to repair the constant and costly injury to per-line of the proposed Canadian Pacific Railroad has manent way and equipment. Suppose, however, that a road of the standard gauge, well built and been published. equipped, were to be devoted by its managers to the transportation of freight at rates one-half lower than those now charged by competing lines, and, instead of running five trains per day at ruin ous and dangerous speed, ten or twenty trains should be run at a speed of, say, eight or ten miles per hour, it requires, we think, but little ar gument to show that such a road could increase The revenue of the Baltimore and Ohio its capacity for business fourfold without so much as doubling its operating expenses, allowing for the road and its brauches for the month of Septemdiminished wear and tear and the greater economy Total length from Montreal to the Pacific... 2,777 ber was $1,219,769 21, showing an increase, comof fuel in proportion to mileage. Relieve such a road of the burden of a debt for which it has noth- The Directors of the St. Croix and Penob-pared with the same month for the preceding year, of $177,905 16. It is understood that the tonnage history of the company. moved exceeds that of any month in the previous

It is stated that Gen. Mahone has been

ing to show but fictitious shares of capital stock, scot Railroad propose to construct their road from run as many trains at moderate and even speed Princeton to Grand Lake Stream, at which point as business may require, and the mere question of cheap transportation by rail would, we think, be the Shaw Brothers talk of building the largest tansolved much more quickly and satisfactorily than nery in the world. A survey of this proposed ex by a mere reduction in the width of the gauge. tension is to be made at once. When built, a gap successful in effecting & loan for the Atlantic, MisIt may be argued that, with their present equip of twenty-four miles remains to be filled up besissippi and Ohio Railroad Company to the amount ment our broad and standard gauge railroads are not fully adapted to cheap transportation, how-tween Grand Lake Stream and Passadumkeag, of $15,000,000, and the deed of mortgage involved ever managed. We grant the force of this objec- which, when done, the city of Calais will then be has been duly recorded in Norfolk county, Va., the tion, and would urge upon the projectors of new brought to within five hours' ride of Bangor, State tax upon which was $15,000.

Augusta and Hartwell Railroad.

A correspondent of the Elberton (Ga.) Gazette

Southwestern Pennsylvania Railroad.
The shipments of iron ore from Marquette
The route of the proposed railroad from Greens- for the season up to October 3d amounted to 273,-
has been investigating the delay in commencing burg to Connellsville, has been finally determined, 825 tons; and from Escanaba to 338,307 tons--a
the construction of the Augusta and Hartwell rail and twenty-five sections have already been put total of 612,192 tons. Of pig iron from Marquette,
under contract. The Directors selected what is

road. He says:

The Milwaukee Wisconsin says that a suf-
ficient amount of iron has been purchased for the
Green Bay and Lake Pepin Railroad to lay forty
miles of track. The first cargo is expected to
reach Chicago by the 20th inst. The completion
of this important thoroughfare is thus assured.

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known as the Jack's Run route, and the work will 19,702 tons; and from Escanaba 6,976 Sons-a
When Mr. Seymour, the new Chief Engineer, be pushed forward as rapidly as possible. The total of 26,678 tons. Total of ore and pig iron,
of the road, took charge, his judgment suggest- following contracts have been awarded: Sections 638.870 tons--a difference in favor of Escanaba
ed a different and what is claimed a more prac-one to seven inclusive, P. & F. Collins; sections
ticable route for the first ten or fifteen miles of eight and nine Col. Painter; sections ten, eleven, of 51,816 gross tons.
the road next to Augusta, than upon either of the and twelve, Thomas Schnatterly; sections thir-
lines indicated by previous surveys. This new line teen, fourteen, and fifteen, J. C. M'Causland &
required examination, and many other preliminary Co.; sections sixteen, seventeen, and eighteen P.
matters demanded adjustment before the work & F. Collins; sections nineteen and twenty, D.
could proceed without interruption. The essential Williams; sections twenty-one and twenty-two,
datails of arrangement are now said to be nearly Mr. Roller; sections twenty-three and twenty-
accomplished, and the contractor, Mr. E. Hanford, four, to John Snider.
of New York is expected to arrive within a week,
prepared to place 500 hands on the road about the
19th of October. The first ten miles will, it is
confidently expected, be completed by the first of
January. A piece of good news in connection
with the future prospects of this road is the infor-
mation, from a reliable source, that George D.
Chapman, he who exhibited such peculiar" devel
oping" talent in the construction of railroads
(upon paper,) has, of his own volition, retired from
the Board of Directors, and is henceforth to have
no voice in the management of the enterprise.
With this obstruction out of the way, it is to be
hoped that the friends of the road in Augusta and
along the projected route will give it the benefit
of all the moral and material encouragement
which the universally acknowledged importance
of the road demands.

Trenton and Fulton Railroad.
From the Clairborne (La.) Advocate we take the
following estimate of the cost per mile of the Tren-
ton and Fulton railroad. We see from this that
it will be a cheap road:

HOMER (LA.) August 25.1871.

I herewith give an expression of my views re
garding the cost per mile to build a three-feet
gauge railroad from Monroe, Louisiana, to Fulton,
1,760 Cross Ties.
10,570 feet, lineal measure, of stringer



.... ........

.... ....

62 tons of tire iron, to be fastened at the
ends with screw spikes...

Bridging and trestles.

Per mile.... ..


The Bayfield Press says a company of
capitalists of New York city, with E. G. Roberts
as President, has bought the old road bed on the
line of the Hudson and Superior road, and will
lay twenty miles of iron from Hudson to New Rich-
mond this season."

The amount of the Virginia State debt
funded under the act of last session, on the 11th
$425 00
440 00 instant reached $20,400,000. The whole debt is
$40,000,000, one-third of which is chargeable to
360 00 West Virginia.

3,100 00
It is stated that the Tyngsborough and
170 00 Brookline (Mass.) Railroad has been located as far
1,200 00
as North Pepperell, within four miles of its New
..85,695 00 Hampshire terminus. The surveyor's work will
Respectfully, RICHARD SERPELL.
soon be completed and proposals advertised for.
The proposition for a preliminary survey was
promptly accepted by a number of citizens of
Homer, and Col. Serpell has already embarked in
the work. Magnolia Flower.

The Chicago and Northwestern Railway
company officially announces that its entire loss
will not exceed $500,000, and that all the shops,
engines and passenger cars at the depot were sav-

The Alexandria Gazette, of 9th ins.,t says
that the work on the branch of the Richmond,
Fredericksburg and Potomac railroad has been
completed to Chappawamsic creek, to which point
material trains are now running. As soon as the
bridge over this creek is completed there will then
remain about two miles of track to lay, which can
be done in about two weeks, by which time the
The St. Gothard railway, with a tunnel
road will be finished to its terminus at Quantico, about the length of that of the Mont Cenis, may
The Baltimore and Potomac Railroad
where the trains will connect with the Potomac soon be commenced. The capital necessary for
steamers, instead of at Aquia Creek, as at present, the tunnel is about 60,000,000f, and for the lines Company have begun to grade for their track in
thus shortening the distance and lessening the time to join the Italian and the Swiss systems about Virginia avenue, Washington, and will soon begin
between that place and Richmond.
125,000,000f. Subsidies to the extent of 85,000,- to lay the rails.

The Hagerstown Herald says that the com000f. have been voted by Germany Italy, and Swit-
missioners appointed by the Legislature of Mary-zerland, and the remaining 100 millions are to be
land to take subscriptions preparatory to organiz- taken by a syndicate, 65,000,000f. in bends, bear-


ing the Antietan Railroad Company in Washing ing, 5 per cent. interest, and 35,000,000f. in shares. 1,400

ton county, give notice that books of subscription It is estimated that at least seven to eight years
will be opened. The capital stock is fixed at $200- will be required for completion of the work.
000, and in shares of $20 each. The road is to run
from the Antietam iron works, or the Potomac, at
Shepherdstown, through Washington county, to
connect with the Miramar railroad, which runs
from the Susquehanna, opposite Harrisburg, to
the State line in Franklin county, south of Way-

L. B. Boomer, of Chicago, has the con-
tract for building a bridge across the Missouri
Rvier at Atchison, Kansas, his bid being $850,-
000 for the bridge complete, including the ap.
proaches. The bridge is to be finished within
twelve months.

and Boston.

The officers of the Credit Valley Railway
company are; George Laidlaw, President, and C.
J. Campbell, Vice-President, W. H. Beatty Solicit
or and J. G. Conlin Secretary.

Tons 40 lb. Welsh Rails, made by the Rhym.
ney Company, in store for sale by
31 New Street,
New York.

Notice to Contractors.

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The Granite Branch railroad, a spear of the
The Winston (N. C.) Sentinel, of the 5th
will be received at this office until noon of Wed-
instant, says that President Belo, of the North-Old Colony and Newport railroad, has been com
pleted and formally opened to passenger traffic benesday, the 25th of October. Said portion con-
western North Carolina railroad, has made a con-
sists of the Southern Division, 25 miles long, ex-
tween the villages of West Quincy, East Milton, tending from Spencer, in Tioga county, through
tract with the Richmond and Danville Railroad
Tompkins county to the Seneca county line; and
Company by which the latter is to complete said
the Middle Division, 33 miles long, from the Sene.
road from Greensboro' to Winston by the 1st of
ca county line to Waterloo; in all about 58 miles.
July next.
Proposals will be received for either or both Di-
visions, and are to be based on the following terms
of payment, viz: twenty per cent. to be in the
capital stock of the company; thirty per cent. in
town bonds or cash, at the option of the company,
and the remaining fifty per cent. in the first mort-
gage bonds of the Road. The Company reserves
to itself the right to reject any or all bids that are
not deemed consistent with their interests.
Specifications may be procured by application
to the undersigned. ALFRED F. SEARS,
Chief Engineer,

The proposed Albany, Sandlake and Ste.
phentown Railroad will shorten the distance be-
tween Albany and Boston twenty-six miles. Its
early completion is probable.

The track of the Wellington, Grey and
Bruce Railway is laid to Harriston, on the border
of the county of Bruce,

The ships Charlotte and Uncle Joe arrived
at Norfolk on the 8th instant with full cargoes of The laying of the track on the Maine Cen-
railroad iron for the Atlantic, Ohio and Mississippi tral extension was completed to the Grand Trunk
(General Mahone's) railroad.

Railway track on the 6th inst,


To Contractors.




bracing the GRADUATION and MASONRY of
eighteen sections or miles lying between Belpre
and Athens, in the State of Ohio.

SPECIFICATIONS of the work can be obtained
at the offices of the Marietta and Cincinnati Rail-
road Company, in Parkersburg, West Virginia,
and Athens, Ohio, on and after the 11th instant,
and SEALED PROPOSALS therefor addressed
to the undersigned will be received in the PAR-
KERSBURG OFFICE up to the 25th instant in-

The privilege of rejecting any or all proposals
being reserved to the Baltimore Short-Line Rail-
way Company.

JOHN WADDLE, President.

October 9th, 1871.

Notice to R. R. Contractors.

ROPOSALS for grading and masonry for

C. V. MEAD & CO.,


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Under the celebrated Leschot Pat-
ents, with important



Rock Drilling



Tunneling, Open Cut and Side Work in


or Steam, and Bore at a Uniformly
They are Driven by Compressed Air
rapid rate, making a perfectly cylin-
drical hole, of the same size top and
bottom in the hardest rock.

The economy of these Drills and their entire efficiency
have been abundantly established, and the advantage of the
rotary over the percussive operation very generally allowed.
adapted [in different sizes and styles,] to Channelling,
Gadding and Shafting: also to Deep Boring for testing
the value of Mines and Quarries. Catalogues sent upon
application. Manufactured by

The American Diamond Drill Co.,


RAILWAY MATERIALS. Baxter Steam-Engine,




Drawing Instruments, Paper, Bessemer Steel Rails.

Tape Measures, &c.

Illustrated Catalogue sent by mail, 10 cents.

924 Chestnut St., Philadelphia.

535 Broadway, New York. by

Park Gate Iron Rails,

(Manufactured in Yorkshire and the best rail made in
For sale by


54 Cliff Street,


Atherton & Coles,




Blank Book Manufacturers.


1,000 tons LLYNVI VALE.

50 LBS. ERIE PATTERN. Now in yard and for sale


18 William street



Billmeyer & Smalls,


This old established firm continue to build all kinds of
Freight Cars to order.

having received their special attention, they are prepared
Narrow Gauge Cars

to receive orders and to deliver promptly. A contract has
just been made with the pioneer Narrow Gauge Road-3
ft. Gauge-on this Continent-(The Denver and Rio
Grande R. W.)-for 100 cars; also for a Georgia Road.
Comparative weights of Narrow and Full Gauge Cars
sent by mail free of charge.

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Contract for BUILDING and OPERATING at any point required.

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Steamers ieave 15th and 30th each month, except when those days fall on Sunday, then the day previous.

Oct. 30, steamer RISING STAR, CAPT H. P. CONNER, will lease Pier No. 42, North River, at 12 o'clock noon. for Aspinwal, direct, connecting at Panama with steamer SACRAMENTO, Capt. Parker, touching at Punta Arenas, Acajutla, and San Jose Guatemala, aleo connecting for all Central American and South Pacific ports.

Freight for last-named ports received until 4 P. M. of

Oct. 27.

Steamer AMERICA will leave San Francisco, Nov. 2, for Japan and China.

For rates of passage, freight and all further information,


F. R. BABY, Agent.

MACHINERY and APPLIANCES for RIVER, HARBOR apply at the Company's office on the pier, foot of Canal and. BANK IMPROVEMENTS, constantly on hand, and furnished on short notice.


Wrought Iron









The Superiority of these Joints has been proved by eight years' use on different Roads.


No. 18 William Street, New-York,

In Store and to Arrive



76 South Street, New York,
27 Central Wharf, Boston,
205 1-2 Walnut St., Philadelphia,

AGENTS for the UNITED STATES OF MAW & CO.'S (London) Encaustic Tiles, Geometrical and Pictorial MOSAIC and Plain Tile Pavement and Majolica and Enamelled Wall Tiles for Entrance Halls, Corridors, Conservatories, Churches, Cemeteries, Chapels, Balconies, Fireplaces, Linings, Hearths, Exterior and Interior Wall Panels, Tablets, String Courses.


of best AMERICAN, ENGLISH and WELSH make, of ORDINARY or CIVIL ENGINEER, SUPERIOR QUALITY, and of any size, weight and pattern, from WORKS, YARD or EUROPEAN Shipping port, or delivered at ports in the United States or Canadas.

and Puddled Steel Rails, Chairs, Spikes, &c.

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Fig. No. 2, Car Dumped.

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31 New St., cor. of Exchange Place, EW YORK.


HIE andersigned, agents for the manufacturers are prepared to make CONTRACTS FOR RAILS delivered free on board at ports in England, or exship t ports in the United States.


59 Liberty St.. New York,

The Brakeman seizes the lever H, and raises it about a foot, thus releasing the hopper from the catch, C, and the tilting-frame, F, from the catch, C, when the hopper, K, yields to the force of gravity and rolls over to the position shown in Fig. 2. To Replace the Hopper in Readiness for another Load. The brakeman bears his weight on the up-end of the tilting-frame, F, forcing it down to its place, when the hopper THOMAS D. STETSON, Solicitor of Pert in Patent ells back to its place, where it is held by the catches, C and C. Patents, and Professional Expert Address, A. W. RHOADS & CO., Wilkes-Barre, Pa. Lock Box 131. Cases. No. Tryon Row, New York.




MR. FREDERIC ALGAR, No. 8 Clements sources, stepped in with abundant means and deLane, Lombard Street, LONDON, England, is the authorized termined to complete the work. They receive European Agent for the JOURNAL. from the State & free gift of all that the State had done west of Covington; are relieved from taxation until the dividends reach 10 per cent., and have some other important privileges. The gen1185 tlemen who thus seized upon what seems to me 1185 one of the greatest opportunities in the country


Chesapeake and Obio Railroad.....
The Hartford Tunnel........


Chicago and Northwestern Railway....1280, 1186 for a solid and profitable investment of capital,

Federal and State Securities
Dividend and Interest Tables.

Railroad Bond List

Railroad Share List



Stock Exchange and Money Market
United Company's Lease..
Dualin-Experiments with....

[WHOLE NO. 1,853, VOL. XLIV.

and iron country; the facilities for cheap transportation will create numerous iron furnaces, salt and oil works; the coal which now lies under so large a part of the great Kanawha lands will be mined for consumption in the East as well as the West and South West. I am told that the best Kanawha cannel coal can be sold, in New York, when the road is completed, for $6 50 per ton.

The Hartford Tunnel.

The new Hartford tunnel for the Hartford and

1189 were Messrs. A. A. Low, Wm. H. Aspinwall, Jonas 1188, 1190 G. Clark, Richard Irwin, Wm. B. Hatch, P. Fisk, 1190 and C. P. Huntington, the last named being Pre-New Haven Railroad, is nearly completed. The .1198 sident of the Company. .1205 1207


Pittsburg and Castle Shannon Railroad....
Journal of Railroad Law....

Gen. W. C. Wickham, Gen. Anderson, and seve enlargement of the old tunnel was made through ral other Virginians are also among the Directors. an exceedingly troublesome strata of quicksand With men like those at the back of it the work is and clay, which had a tendency to cave in, and 1208 going on rapidly, and will be completed next Oc

. 1207


thus seriously impede the operation of excavating tober. I have been struck, all along the new line now building with the solidity of the masonry and pile driving, which was carried on at the same and the thoroughness with which every part of time. The tunnel passes under two busy streets, American Railroad Journal. the work is done. The tunnels and bridges are one having a horse railroad track, and both hav

New York Saturday, October 28, 1871.

First Class Railroad Construction.

From Mr. Nordhoff's letters to the Tribune, from Virginia, we extract the following particulars concerning the portion of the Chesapeake and Ohio Road now in operation :

Change of Gauge.

all, with the exception of two tunnels, prepared ing gas pipe, aqueduct pipe, etc., all of which had for a double track; the whole line can be double-to be moved and removed, so as not to discomtracked at a comparatively small expense when mode the public. Trains passed upon the road itself ever it becomes necessary, and the land investments made, not only at Huntington, but all along fact which necessitated considerable calculation. on an average every five minutes during the day a the line, at every point where there is likely to be The number of piles driven was 1781, or measuran important town, promise in themselves to paying the part actually under ground, seven miles. magnificently. The work is done for cash, and The work was under the immediate supervision of accordingly there is no waste; with a country of E. M. Read, superintendent of the Hartford and wonderful mineral and other wealth to develop, New Haven Railroad, who is a practical and efEast of the White Sulphur, and between that and Western connections, which will make it, ficient engineer. point and Covington, we passed over that part of when completed, one of the great through lines the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad which was sur- connecting the West, with tide-water-consider. veyed and built by the State of Virginia before ing also its low grades, and its small cost comthe war. This part of the line crosses the Alleg-pared with other through lines, it will have great We hear discussed the propriety and profitablehanies, and the work done here, in tunnels and advantages over its competitors. ness of changing the gauge of the Wilmington and cuttings, is remarkable for its courage and that East of Covington lies a famous iron region, Manchester and Charlotte, Columbia and Augnsdisregard of cost which is a characteristic of Gov- which has already a few large furnaces. But they ta Roads from five feet to four feet eight and oneernment work. The Virginia Central Railroad need the coal which the Chesapeake and Ohio half inches. The present difference in gauge inwas completed, from Richmond to Covington, a Road can bring them so cheaply when it is comvolves a transfer of freight and passengers at Chardistance of 205 miles, in 1861. While it was pleted, to enable them to work to advantage, for lotte and Wilmington. Such a change, producing building the State of Virginia undertook to build they have "skinned" their forests for charcoal, uniformity, would ensure a continued line to Bal a railroad from Covington to the Ohio River, to A Pennsylvanian, an expert in iron, who had timore and New York of uniform gauge, quickencomplete the line from the west to tide-water. been "prospecting" in this region reported it to ig intercommunication, and lessening the cost of On this work the State spent $3,400,000, and what be very rich, having a distinct and very heavy trasportation. it did was magnificently done. The masonry tun- vein of iron ore, and, in fact, he asserted that this A direct, uninterrupted transit from Augusta nels are all double tracked, the cuts are straight region was for it on what the great Kanawha Val-to Norfolk and Baltimore, so far from operating and clean, and the line its engineers laid has ad-ley is for coal. injuriously upon the interests of Augusta, will, if mirably low grades and easy curves. It is marvelous to me that a region so near the we apprehend prevailing views correctly, be reBut the war stopped this work. After the war great monetary center of the country; and so won-ceived with favor by our commercial citizens. The the State was unable to finish it, and finally a law derfully rich in mineral wealth, should have been great current of trade is now, and for a long time was passed granting to the Virginia Central Com-left untouched until now. Bat the blight of to come will continue to set Northward. Interior pany all the franchises and property of that por- Slavery hung over it, and capital and free labor trunk lines of railroads have entered successfully tion begun by the State, on the condition that alike avoided it. The Chesapeake and Ohio Rail- into competition with water carriage by circuitous they should complete it to the Ohio River. The road, when it is completed, will quickly create a routes for all the finer classes of merchandise and two portions were consolidated under a new name new Virginia. From its completion will date, I in the way of return freight, for the heavier prod-the Chesapeake and Ohio-and, at a later do not doubt, the real prosperity of both Virginia ucts of the country close uninterrupted connection period, New York capitalists, discovering the great and West Virginia. It will draw capital and labor by rail, bringing cheap rates over roads of low advantages of the route, and its immense re-to the now sparsely settled and undeveloped coal gradients with the ports of Wilmington and Nor

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