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The petitions, generally speaking, are very black and well preserved, and were evidently written chiefly by clerks; whereas Charny's marginal scribble is much faded.

There was some question about a certain Desplanches in the winter of 1572. The certificate which follows is not an abjuration, but simply a certificate of catholicity. It does not at all follow that Desplanches had ever been a Huguenot.

'Je soubsigné curé de l'eglise parrochial de monsieur St Médard à Dijon, certifie que, depuis trois ans que je suis curé dud: paroisse, j'ay tousiours veu venir en icelle eglise Jehan Desplanches, libraire, et faire office d'ung bon Chréstien; mesmement ès jours de Pasques recevoit le saint sacrement de l'autel : ce que je certiffie soubz mon seing cy mis. 12 janvier, 1573.

BÉRARD.'1

In the same month, we find an arrêt of parlement about witchcraft, which is of interest. Questions of sorcery and witchcraft much exercised the popular mind at this date and led to terrible scenes in reformed Scotland and elsewhere. However much France failed in religious toleration, she was certainly ahead of other countries in the matter of witchcraft. The arrêt condemned a man and woman to perpetual banishment and amende honorable' for sorcery. (Sorcery, in French processes, was almost invariably mixed up with poisoning.) It proceeded: And to the end that similar errors do not increase amongst Christians, and that superstition be uprooted from the minds of the ignorant, the court exhorts and orders all bishops and curates to teach and instruct the folk in the true knowledge and pure worshipping of God, and to flee all superstitions covered by a pretext of religion; and, moreover, forbids the prévôts of the maréchaussées and inferior tribunals of the ressort to entertain any process of witchcraft, under pain of nullity, expenses, and damages. All such cases were to come before the Tournelle. This marks the first step in enlightenment; for no real progress in humanity, or even in common sense, was possible so long as such a ridiculous and

1 Arch. mun. D, 66.

2 Fonds Saverot, No. 3, vol. i., Bib. mun.

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cruel belief existed. Another century had, however, to elapse before Colbert-for ever honourable for stopping this cruel folly finally forbade the parlements to consider any more cases of witchcraft.

Another interesting arrêt of June 9, 1573, throws light on ecclesiastical disorders. The procureur général du roi required that the temporalities of various hospitals and almshouses, which were no longer administered according to the pious intentions of the founders, but were full of abuses, should be seized and placed under the hand of His Majesty, to be ruled by people of position and substance; and that the revenues should be duly distributed to the poor and necessitous.

The court ordered that the dean, canons, and chapter of the Ste Chapelle, who had the administration of these hospitals, should find two men of substance for each of the hospitals; who shall have the administration of all the revenue, which they shall employ solely for the support and feeding of all the poor, indifferently. All titles, deeds, and sources of revenue were to be exhibited within a week to the procureur général. Moreover, the court ordered the clergy to perform the divine service accustomed to be said in the hospitals and almshouses; and to administer the Sacraments to the poor in person, as their duty and office required according to the edicts.1 Such useful legislation was constantly being enacted in the various parlements, and is too often overlooked by the student, whose eyes are apt to be overmuch fixed on the commotion which raged around.

Before finishing this paper, let us take one of the last letters patent of the unhappy Charles, written at the end of his miserable life.

Aux maire et éschevins etc.

De par le roy. Chers et bien améz nous avons heu advis que les faulx bruitz seméz par aulcuns mal affectionnéz au repos publicq, et qui ne demandent que à veoir recommencer les troubles afin qu'ils aient pendant iceulx plus de moien de mal faire, piller, et oppresser le peuple comme ils faisoient durant les passéz, ont estés causes que aos subjects de la Nouvelle opinion sont entréz en si grande défiance

1 Fonds Saverot, No. 3, vol. 1., Bib. mun.

estimant que lesd: faulx bruitz, à quoy n'avons jamais pensé fussent véritables. Et ont lesd: de la N. O., sur ces occasions, délibéré essayer de surprendre aulcunes de nosd: villes pour s'en saisir et dont nous avons advisé vous advertir incontinant, afin que vous aiez à prendre garde à la seureté de nostre ville de Dijon. Mais désirons que vous comportes de façon que, ésta blissant bien la seurté de Dijon, tous noz subjects y puissent vivre en paix; et que lesd: de la N. O. puissent cognoistre comme notre droite et sincère intention est de contenir tous nos subjetz, de l'une et de l'aultre religion, en seureté et repos soubz notre obéissance. A St Germain en Laye, 27 jour de febvrier, 1574.1

CHARLES.

BRUSLARD.'

This letter shows us Charles, a man easily accessible to the nobler emotions, returned to his better self, and from that mind he did not again depart. The only people whose presence he could endure at the end, besides his own saintly wife, werestrange mixture-the gentle and refined Marie Touchet, his old nurse, and his brother-in-law, all Protestants. Charles was a man of real taste; a good patron of the arts and learning, and he wrote poetry but little inferior to that of Ronsard. He has obtained a forlorn reputation in history for his complicity in the gigantic crime of St. Bartholomew, yet he was the best of the brothers; and his character was as high as that of most Renaissance princes. If his lot had been cast in a quieter period he would, I think, have obtained no worse fame than that of an eccentric, rather violent, genius-like Ludwig II of Bavaria.

1 Arch. mun., B, 211, fo. 26.

THE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE COUNT OF CHARNY, 1571-1589, WHICH IS PRESERVED IN THE ARCHIVES MUNICIPALES DE DIJON 1

No. I

CHARNY TO THE VICOMTE MAJEUR AND ECHEVINS

He requests that his house may have the 'franchise et immunité qui est en doubte, et exempte de touttes impositions; touttefois j'ay entendu que l'on presse mon concierge, ce que je ne puis bonnement croire sur la promesse que m'aves faitte, laquelle je vous prie vouloir entretenir je me racommande à vos bonnes graces

priant etc.' 2

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A Bussière sur ouche (?) 19 oct. 1571.

No. II

CHARLES IX TO CHARNY

The King desires him to have a plan of Dijon made and to add a notice of the chief monuments of the town; so that it may be published in the Cosmographie de Munster.' 3

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St. Germain en Laye, 16 jan. 1574.

No. III

CHARNY TO DESBARRES, MAYOR OF DIJON

Informs him of the King's commands (see Letter No. II), and requests him duly to collect the necessary information. Pagny, 15 feb. 1574.4

1 Only the more interesting letters are printed in full. Charny's nomina governorship did not end in 1589; but when the League was fairly established in Dijon he had lost all real influence and power. Several of these letters were published by M. Grangier-not always correctly-in 1865, in the Analecta Divionensia. They are, however, inaccessible to readers in England.

2 Arch. mun. Dijon, B, 456, p. 4.

Arch. mun., B, 208, p. 26.

croissance de Dijon.

This plan is reproduced in Hauser's Site et

• Arch. mun., B, 456, p. 10. Bernard Desbarres, second president (1578), was afterwards a most active Leaguer. Pagny-le-Château is a few miles south of Saint-Jean-de-Losne.

No. IV

CHARNY TO DESBARRES

He approves the measures taken for the protection of Dijon, and desires the mayor to watch the intentions of the people of Montbéliard, without making a noise over it. He intends shortly to go to Dijon.

Pagny, 9 march. 1574.1

No. V

CHARNY TO THE MAYOR AND ECHEVINS

Je vous ai fait dernièrement entendre la volonté du feu roy touchant son successeur, qui est le roy de Poullogne. Attendant la venue duquel il a plu à la royne sa mère prendre la régence et administration des affaires de ce royaulme; ainsy vous sçavez par la copie, que je vous envoye, de la letre qu'il a plu à sa majesté m'escripre, qui est de vous admonester de vous conformer toujours à son intention.

Pagny, 16 juin. 1574.

No. VI

CATHERINE TO CHARNY

MON COUSIN,-Vous aves entendu, par la letre que le feu roy, monsieur mon filz, vous a puis naguère éscript, qu'elle a esté sa dernière volonté pour l'administration des affaires de ceste couronne ; et qu'il a encore voulu confirmer par ses lettres patentes. Depuis il a plu à Dieu l'appeler à soy: et combien que la perte que j'ay faicte en luy de la personne qui m'estoit naturellement la plus chère et recommandée m'atriste et agrave tellement de douleurs que je ne désire rien plus que de remettre et quitter toutes affaires pour chercher quelque tranquillité de vye, néaulmoings vaincue de l'instante prière qu'il m'a faicte par ses derniers propos d'embrasser cest office au bien du roy de Poulongne mon filz, son légitime successeur, et serviteur de ceste dite couronne, à laquelle je recongnois estre tenue de tout ce que l'on m'a départy; j'ay esté contrainte de me charger encores de lad: administration, et de la régence qu'il a commise, attendant l'arrivée par deça de mond: filz le roy de Poulongne qui sera, comme j'espère, dedans peu de temps, ayant

1 Arch. mun., B, 211, p. 27.

2 Arch. mun., B, 456, p. 12.

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