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one or both parties, who may become the object of offensive measures. The right of declaring war, in monarchical governments, is commonly in the king, as the actual sovereign power, or the head of the executive, as in constitutional monarchies. In England and France, the king has the right to declare war and make peace; but this power is virtually controlled by the legislative power to grant or withhold supplies. In the U. States, the constitution provides (art. 1, sec. 8) that the congress shall have power to declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, raise and support armies, and provide and maintain a navy. It is not, in modern times, a common practice to make a formal declaration of war, or official previous notice to the enemy; but a domestic manifesto of the sovereign to his subjects, or to the nation, is considered as sufficient to apprize neutrals that a war actually exists. Thus, in the war between England and France, in 1778, the recalling of the British minister from Paris was considered the first public act of hostility; and there was no other declaration of war. So, in the war of 1812, between Great Britain and the U. States, hostilities were commenced, on our part, as soon as the necessary act of congress was passed, without waiting to communicate our intentions to the English government. Individuals have no right to commit acts of hostility, except in self-defence, without a commission from the proper authorities, and are liable to be treated as pirates and robbers if they undertake hostilities on their own responsibility. (See Privateers, and Prize.)-On the rights and duties of belligerents in general, see the articles Nations, Law of; and Conquest. See, likewise, Soldiers, Strategy, Military Sciences, Army, Navy, Tirailleurs, &c.

War, Private, or Club-Law (jus manuarium, in German, Faustrecht, fist-law). Throughout the countries which composed the Carlovingian empire, no feudal right was more universally established and exercised than that of private war, the immediate cause and systematic commencement of which are sufficiently to be found in the anarchy of the ninth and tenth centuries. During the abeyance of all regal or national authority, the great feudatories were, in fact, in the condition of foreign powers to each other: they were without any common superior jurisdiction, to which, had they been inclined, they could appeal for the redress of injuries; and the power of the sword alone remained to decide their quarrels.

(See Middle Ages, and Feudal Syste) Their example was followed by ther subvassals, and the countries of Europe were perpetually ravaged with internal hostilities. In England alone, of all fendal countries, this scourge was little felt; and, though it cannot be said that the practice of private wars was unknown under the Norman kings, yet the right of waging these feuds was never recognised: theiroccurrence was denounced, and sometimes punished, as an offence against the king's peace, that is, against the supreme authority of the crown. (See Hallam's Middle Ages, vol. ii, chap. 8.) By the feudal customs of the continent, the right of private war was extended to all persons of noble quality, or, in other words, to all possessors of fiefs on knightly tenure. But they must be equal, in the scale of infeudation, with their adversaries; nor did every civil cause of offence justify an appeal to arms, but such deadly injuries only as are usually deemed capital crimes in modern jurisprudence, or such outrageous insults as no knight might endure. When the war was once begun, it might legally be espoused by the relations of both parties; and it was even incumbent on them, in some cases, to give aid in the quarrel, under pain of forfeiting the claims and inheritance of kindred. Still more were the vassals of each combatant involved in the contest, since, by the very essence of the feudal obligations, they were bound to defend and assist their lords. The means by which this pernicious custom was finally abrogated, were various. The most remarkable was the truce of God (q. v.), by which men were forbidden to assail their adversaries during any of the holy festivals, and also during the interval between every Wednesday evening and Monday morning, as embracing those days of the week which had been sanctified by the passion and resurrection of the Redeemer. At first, the truce of God, extending from France, was adopted throughout Europe; but, notwithstanding the anxiety of the church, and repeated decrees of popes and councils, its provisions appear to have been little regarded. The interposition of royal authority was necessary to restrain, and finally to extinguish, these bloody feuds; and the first step towards the accomplishment of this object dates from the ordinance of Louis IX, forbidding, under penalty of treason, the com. mencement of any private war until forty days after the commission of the act in which the quarrel had originated.

The opportunities of accommodation between the parties, given by this edict, which was known under the name of the king's peace, or royal truce, appear to have contributed essentially to diminish the number of private wars in France; and the endeavors of St. Louis, being followed up by Philip the Fair, and successfully completed by Charles VI and Louis XI, led, soon after the middle of the fifteenth century, to the total abolition of the practice in that country, In Germany, truces of this kind (called landfriede, peace of the land) were repeatedly declared for a certain period, during which private war was illegal. But the circumstance that Germany always continued to be divided among a great number of petty but independent sovereign princes, retarded the accomplishment of the efforts of the clergy and the emperors to effect the entire abolition of the practice. In 1486, a landfriede of ten years, the longest that had ever been established, was proclaimed ; and it was soon followed by the perpetual peace (ewiger landfriede), entirely forbidding private war. (See Chamber, Imperial, and German Empire.) WAR, NORTHERN. (See Northern War.) WAR OF 1812-15. (See RussianGerman War.)

WAR OF THIRTY YEARS. (See Thirty Years' War.)

WAR, PEASANTS' or RURAL. (See Peasants' War.)

WARBECK, Perkin; an individual who played a singular part in the reign of Henry VII, giving himself out as the second son of Edward IV, who was supposed to have been murdered, in the Tower, by Richard III. It is difficult, at this distance of time, to decide upon his pretensions; but his ill success has set him down with posterity as an impostor. He was first heard of at the court of the duchess of Burgundy, sister of Edward IV, about the year 1490, when all were struck with his resemblance to that prince. Some authors have asserted that he was the natural son of Edward. Supported by the duchess of Burgundy in his pretensions, Warbeck at length (1496) ventured to make a descent upon England; but, being worsted in the attempt, he retired to Scotland, where he was well received by the king, who gave him the hand of Catharine Gordon, a young lady akin to the royal family. The Scotch king was, however, soon after prevailed upon to abandon his cause; and Warbeck landed in Cornwall, where he was proclaimed king by the name of Richard IV.

But, while yet at the head of 10,000 men, he suddenly deserted his followers, on the approach of Henry, and took refuge in the sanctuary of Beaulieu. Having finally surrendered himself into the hands of the king, he was obliged to read a confession of his imposture, while standing in the stocks, and then thrown into the Tower (1499). Here he met with Edward Plantagenet, earl of Warwick, son of the duke of Clarence, and rightful heir to the crown, who had been a prisoner there for fifteen years. The unhappy boy listened with eagerness to the projects, suggested by Warbeck, for their deliverance, and they were both charged with a conspiracy to set themselves free, by seducing some of the guards and destroying the rest. Warbeck seems to have been excited, by the king, to inveigle Warwick into acts which would give a pretence for effecting his death. Bacon darkly hints, that Ferdinand of Spain was unwilling to assent to the marriage between his daughter, the unfortunate Catharine, and Arthur, prince of Wales, while the earl of Warwick lived. However this may be, Warbeck was convicted of treason, and hanged at Tyburn (1499); and Warwick was likewise convicted of high treason, by a jury of peers, and put to death for an offence which his faculties did not enable him to comprehend. Rey (Essais Historiques et Critiques sur Richard III, Paris, 1818) maintains that Warbeck was the son and lawful heir of Edward IV.

WARBURTON, William, a celebrated prelate of the English church, born at Newark-upon-Trent, in Nottinghamshire, in 1698, was the second son of an attorney, and, after being educated at school, was, in 1714, articled to an attorney at East Markham, in his native county. After completing a clerkship of five years, he was admitted in one of the courts at Westminster, and, returning to Newark, he engaged in legal practice. Not finding the profession adapted to his taste or talents, he relinquished it, and, in 1723, took deacon's orders in the church. His first work, consisting of Miscellaneous Translations, in Prose and Verse, from Roman authors, was published with a Latin dedication to sir George Sutton, who, in 1726, bestowed on him a small vicarage. Shortly after, he visited London, and formed an acquaintance with some of the inferior wits of that period, among whom was Theobald, then engaged on an edition of Shakspeare, to which Warburton became a contributor. In 1727, he began to distinguish himself

as an original writer by his Inquiry into the Causes of Prodigies and Miracles, which he dedicated to sir Robert Sutton, through whose interest he was placed in the list of the king's masters of arts, on his majesty's visit to Cambridge, in 1728; and he thus supplied the want of an academical education. His patron also presented him to the rectory of Brand Broughton, in Lincolnshire, where he remained several years, during which he composed most of those works which contributed to the establishment of his fame. In 1736 appeared his Alliance between Church and State, or the Necessity and Equity of an established Religion and Test Law, which passed through four editions during the life of the author, though it is said to have given satisfaction neither to the zealots of the church nor to the advocates for religious liberty. The first volume of his chief work was ublished, in 1738, under the title of the Divine Legation of Moses demonstrated on the Principles of a Religious Deist, from the Omission of the Doctrine of a Future State of Rewards and Punishments in the Jewish Dispensation. This paradoxical performance met with adversaries among all parties, who concurred in criticising and censuring the theory on which it is founded. Undismayed by animadversion, he published a Vindication of his opinions, and persevered in the prosecution of his work. Having published, in the literary journal called the Works of the Learned, in 1739 and 1740, a defence of the Essay on Man, against the remarks of De Crousaz of Geneva, Pope acknowledged his obligations to his advocate, and an intimacy ensued between them. On his death, in 1744, Pope bequeathed to our author half his library, and the copy-right of such of his works already printed as were not otherwise disposed of. Among the numerous antagonists of Warburton and his Divine Legation, were doctors Middleton, Pococke, R. Grey, Sykes and Stebbing, against whom he published, in 1744 and 1745, two defences, in which he treats all his opponents, except Middleton, with a high degree of asperity and self-confidence. He became, in 1746, preacher to the society of Lincoln's inn; and, in the following year, he appeared as the editor of Shakspeare. He now rapidly advanced in the course of preferment in his profession, becoming prebend of Gloucester in 1753, king's chaplain in ordinary in 1754, then prebend of Durham, D. D. by archiepiscopal mandat", dean of Bristol in

1757, and, two years after, bishop of Gloucester. The fifth volume of the Divine Legation was published in 1765; and some remarks which he introduced on the character of doctor W. Lowth, father of the bishop of London, involved him in a new controversy, in which he was assisted by doctor Richard Hurd. In 1768, he established a lecture at Lincoln's inn, on the evidence in favor of Christianity from the prophecies of the Old and New Testament. The last years of his life were embittered by the decease of an only son, who fell a victim to consumption at the age of nineteen. Bishop Warburton died at Gloucester, June 7, 1779, and was interred in the cathedral church, where a monument was erected to his memory. His works were collected and published by his friend bishop Hurd, in 1788 (6 vols., 4to.); and a biographical memoir, forming a seventh volume, appeared several years after. Doctor Johnson, in his Life of Pope, says of Warburton, "He was a man of vigorous faculties, a mind fervid and vehement, supplied, by incessant and unlimited inquiry, with wonderful extent and variety of knowledge, which yet had not oppressed his imagination, nor clouded his perspicuity. To every work he brought a memory full fraught, together with a fancy fertile of original combinations, and at once exerted the powers of the scholar, the reasoner and the wit. But his knowledge was too multifarious to be always exact, and his pursuits were too eager to be always cautious. His abilities gave him a haughty consequence, which he disdained to correct or mollify; and his impatience of opposition disposed him to treat his adversaries with such contemptuous superiority as made his readers commonly his enemies, and excited against the advocate some who favored the cause. He seems to have adopted the Roman emperor's determination, Oderint dum metuant. He used no allurements of gentle language, but wished to compel ratlier than to persuade. His style is copious without selection, and forcible without neatness; he took the words that presented themselves; his diction is coarse and impure, and his sentences are unmeasured."

WARD, Artemas, the first major-general in the American army, graduated at Harvard college, in 1748. For several years, he was an active and useful member of the general court, and, in 1774, one of the provincial congress. He served in the war previous to the peace of Paris, and, when the revolutionary struggle com


WARP, in manufactures, is the threads, whether of silk, woollen, hemp, &c., that are extended lengthwise on the weaver's locm, and across which the workman, by means of his shuttle, passes the threads of the woof, to form a cloth, riband, fustian, or other stuff.

menced, he was appointed major-general, tism, obstructions, cutaneous eruptions, and was even thought of as generalissi- &c. The environs are romantic. mo. He commanded the troops at Cam- WARNEFRIDUS. (See Paul the Deabridge until the arrival of Washington, when he was placed at the head of the right wing at Roxbury. His firmness and intrepidity were strikingly displayed on various trying occasions. In April, 1776, he resigned his commission, though, at the request of Washington, he continued for some time longer in command. He was afterwards chosen one of the council of Massachusetts, where he was distinguished for his integrity and independence of spirit. In 1786, he was speaker of the house of representatives, and chief justice of the court of common pleas for the county of Worces ter. On the organization of the general government, he was elected to congress. He died at Shrewsbury, Oct. 28, 1800, aged seventy-three years, after a long decline.

WAREHAM; a market-town and borough of England, in Dorsetshire, near the mouth of the Frome. By the reform act of 1832, it was deprived of one of its members of parliament. Population, 2325.

WARENDORF, on the Ems; a Prussian town in the government of Münster, and province of Westphalia, with 4200 inhabitants. Above 16,000 pieces of linen (or 960,000 ells) are woven by the peasants of the environs, in winter, when they cannot work in the fields.

WARHAM, William, an English prelate and statesinan of the sixteenth century, was a native of Hampshire, and was educated at Winchester school and Oxford, where he obtained a fellowship in 1475. He subsequently practised as an advocate in the court of arches, and, after an embassy to Burgundy, was appointed chancellor of Wells, and master of the rolls. Henry VII at length raised him to the dignity of lord chancellor; and he successively became bishop of London, and archbishop of Canterbury. He was one of the early patrons of Wolsey, whose influence, under Henry VIII, gave umbrage to Warham; and, in 1515, he resigned the great scal, and at length withdrew his attention from affairs of state. He died in 1532. This prelate was an encourager of learning, and was the friend and patron of the celebrated Erasmus.

WARMBRUNN (also called Warmbad); a watering place in Silesia, a league from Hirschberg, 1077 feet above the sea, in a omantic situation. It contains 1900 inhabitants. The warm springs are much resorted to for the cure of gout, rheuma

WARP; a rope or hawser, employed occasionally to remove a ship from one place to another, in a port, road or river. Hence to warp is to change the situation of a ship, by pulling her from one part of a harbor, &c., to some other, by means of warps which are attached to buoys, to other ships, to anchors sunk in the bottom, or to certain stations upon the shore, as posts, rings, trees, &c.

WARREN, Sir Peter, an English admiral, distinguished for his professional talents and his private virtues, was descended from an ancient family in Ireland, and received an education suitable to the employment for which he was destined. Having entered young into the navy, he gradually rose to the rank of commodore, which he held in 1745, when he was appointed commander of an armament destined for the attack of Louisburg, North America, then belonging to the French. He was joined by the fleet of transports from Boston, containing the New England troops under sir W. Pepperell (q. v.), in Canso bay, on the 25th of April; and the combined forces took possession of Louisburg on the 17th of June. The French considered the loss of this place, of so much importance, that, in 1747, they fitted out a powerful fleet for the purpose of retaking it; and, at the same time, another squadron was sent to the East Indies. The views of the French government were rendered abortive by the courage and activity of admiral An-, son and sir Peter Warren. The latter, who had been made a rear-admiral, with a large fleet, fell in with the French squadron, completely defeated them, and captured the greater part of their menof-war. Peace being concluded the succeeding year, he was elected member of parliament for Westminster. He died in


WARREN, Joseph, a major-general in the American army, was born at Roxbury, Massachusetts, in 1740. He graduated, in 1759, at Harvard university, where he bore the reputation of great talents, accomplishments, courage, generosity and in

dependence of spirit. After leaving college, he studied medicine, and rose, in a few years, to eminence among the physicians of Boston. He soon became conspicuous as a politician; and his pen was constantly employed in defending the rights of his country, from the year in which the stamp act was passed, until the commencement of the revolutionary war. From the year 1768, he was a principal member of the secret meeting or caucus in Boston, which exercised great influence on the concerns of the country; and in the plans of defence which he helped to mature in this assembly, and which were made known after the destruction of the tea, he evinced great circumspection and wisdom, notwithstanding the boldness and ardor of his character. He was twice selected to deliver the oration on the anniversary of the Boston massacre, on which occasion he manifested his characteristic warmth and energy. On the evening before the affair of Lexington, he obtained intelligence of the intended expedition against Concord, and, at ten o'clock in the night, despatched an express to Hancock and Adams, then in the former town, to warn them of their danger. In the battle itself he was very active, and is said to have lost a part of his ear-lock by a ball. His influence was of great use in preserving order among the troops confusedly assembled at Cambridge. When Hancock repaired to the congress at Philadelphia, he was chosen his successor in the presidentship of the provincial congress; and four days previous to the affair of Bunker's hill, he received the commission of major-general. On the day of that memorable engagement, he joined the men within the lines, to encourage them, as a volunteer; and just as the retreat commenced, he was struck by a ball on the head, which terminated his career in the trenches. He was thirty-five years of age at the period of his death, and was the first victim of rank in the struggle between the two countries. In the spring of 1776, his bones were disinterred and entombed in Boston, on which occasion an eloquent funeral eulogy was pronounced by a member of the society of masons, of which he had been grand master in America. General Warren posnessed a clear and vigorous understanding, and a humane and generous disposition. His qualities of head and heart, accompanied, as they were, by manners affable and winning, caused him to be almost idolized by the army and his friends. He published an oration in 1772, and an

other in 1775, commemorative of the 5th of March, 1770. Within a year after his death, congress passed resolutions to erect a monument to his memory, in Boston, with a suitable inscription (which, however, has not yet been done), and to educate his eldest son at the expense of the U. States. In 1780, this body further resolved to recommend to the executive of Massachusetts, to make provision for the maintenance and education of his three youngest children, and to defray the expense, to the amount of the half-pay of a major-general.

WARRINGTON; a thriving town of Eng land, in Lancashire, on the Mersey; population, 16,018; eighteen miles east of Liverpool. By the reform act of 1832, it was constituted a borough, returning one member to parliament.

WARSAW (Polish Warszawa; called by the Germans Warschau, and by the French Varsovie); capital of the late kingdom, formerly capital of the whole country of Poland, on the west bank of the Vistula, 300 miles east of Berlin; lon. 20° 3′ E.; lat. 52° 14' N. The population, which, in 1830, was 140,000, is now reduced to about 60,000. Warsaw has a pleasant situation, not very elevated, yet sufficiently so to be secure against the overflowings of the Vistula. It is an open town, having neither gates nor walls, but is enclosed with lines. It covers a great extent of ground, being between three and four miles long, including its four suburbs, and between two and three broad; but this extent includes large spaces occupied by gardens. The city, formerly but little better than a collection of cottages, received considerable improvements from its Saxon sovereigns of the last century. Still it was an irregular and unpleasant place, exhibiting a singular contrast of ostentation and poverty, having, in a few quarters, mansions of such splendor as to be entitled to the name of palaces; in others, a succession of miserable hovels. The streets were formerly wholly without pavements, and exceedingly filthy; but several of them have been paved, kept clean, and well lighted. The town is divided into old and new, exclusive of the four suburbs, one of which, Praga (q. v.), lies on the east bank of the river. The old town, with the exception of a few public edifices, is miserably built; but there is a greater proportion of good houses in the new town and suburbs. The largest edifice is the palace of the kings of the house of Saxony, the residence of the

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