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spread the Gospel under strict Presbyterian forms, and in the whole work of the church.

It was an advantage, too, that the Old School felt themselves particularly bound to demonstrate by special activity and zeal, that what they had so earnestly. contended for was in truth for the furtherance and prosperity of Christ's kingdom. To save their own credit, much more for the glory of God, they must prove that Congregational order was no help to Presbyterianism; that church boards were better than vol untary associations; that old Calvinism was the form of doctrine most effective in producing genuine revivals and saving men.

The measures adopted by the General Assembly to purge the church of Congregationalism were soon completely successful. The greater number of those judicatories in which it prevailed to any serious extent went off, sooner or later, with the New School; but in one way or another the last vestige of it disappeared, before long, from the Old School body.

The theological history of this division of the church for the whole thirty-two years of its separate existence may be presented in a very few words. It was left by the separation in a state of almost unprece dented doctrinal homogeneity. One may well doubt, whether any other Christian communion of equal size has ever excelled it, as to unity in the reception of an evangelical creed of such extent as the Westminster Confession and Catechisms. Differences of opinion, even among its ministers, have, of course, existed; but these differences have been comparatively trifling, or of very little prominence or prevalence. If in any quarter so


rious error has been adopted, for the most part it must have been kept secret, or have been known to but a few. No agitating discipline on this ground has been exercised, or, to the knowledge of the church at large, needed. "Princeton Theology," as it has often been called, has, beyond question, been almost universally prevalent among the Old School. If opposing systems must take a modern nomenclature, there may be no harm in making Princeton and New Haven respectively the synonyms of the Old and the New Divinity; but it should be remembered that the text-books of Princeton have constantly been the simple Westminster symbols, and such long and generally approved systematic presentations of the Reformed Theology as the "Institutio Theologiæ Elenctica" of Franciscus Turrettin. School men have been slow to admit the idea of any possible improvement in the generally received system of gospel truth. Recognizing fully the recent progress made in Biblical criticism and exegesis; the fact, too, that from time to time fuller and more exact statements of Christian doctrine may be, as they have been, elaborated; and by no means maintaining that any uninspired man has been wholly free from error; they have, nevertheless, rejected with singular unanimity the assumption, that any part of the substance of the gospel has lain hidden in holy Scripture until modern times; or that the church of Christ has new discoveries to make as to the system of truth in Jesus. Of a wellknown Presbyterian quarterly publication, one identified with it from the beginning has lately said, "It has been the honest endeavor of its conductors to exhibit and defend the doctrines of our standards, under the

abiding conviction that they are the doctrines of the word of God. They have advanced no new theories, and have never aimed at originality. Whether it be a ground of reproach or of approbation, it is believed to be true, that an original idea in theology is not to be found on" its "pages... from the beginning until now." And this praise or blame may be said to have belonged to the Old School Church in general as distinctively as to the publication from which it has been quoted.

A deep conviction of the church's duty to carry on, through strictly ecclesiastical agencies, the work of Foreign Missions, had led the Synod of Pittsburg, as early as 1831, to organize itself for this purpose as The Western Foreign Missionary Society. The New School had refused to consummate the desires and plans of the Old, by taking this enterprise under the care of the whole church; but the Assembly of 1837 accepted the trust, establishing in New York City The Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, to which the Synod of Pittsburg immediately made a surrender. This result greatly cheered those who had so long labored for it, and they felt their solemn responsibility to prove that zeal for Christ's cause, not mere party spirit, had ani mated their endeavors. The first meeting of the new board was held in Baltimore in the following October; and it commenced its operations with alacrity, and with most encouraging prospects, which have not proved delusive.

According to the plan of church agencies now fully established, a Board of Publication was appointed by the Assembly of 1838, to which was transferred the property and business of the Presbyterian Tract and

Sabbath-School Book Society, organized by the Synod of Philadelphia a few years before. The Assembly of 1839, the fiftieth year having now been completed since this supreme judicatory had first convened, recommended the second Sabbath of December for a semicentenary celebration, a day of jubilee thanksgiving for past mercies; and the offering at that time, by all the members of the church, of gifts for the endowment of the new board. The fund raised reached the sum of forty thousand dollars. This sum, with about twentyeight thousand dollars donated for building purposes a few years later, has been the nucleus of all that board's permanent property.

Before the division, two boards had been organized: The Board of Missions, now of Domestic Missions, for the home work, in 1816; and in 1819, The Board of Education, to aid candidates for the ministry; both located in Philadelphia. These had been fostered by the Old School, while, as a party, the New School had preferred The American Home Missionary Society, and The American Education Society, voluntary associa tions in which Congregationalists participated.

The Board of Missions had, in 1844, the business of church extension, or church erection, added to its other operations. This was carried on by a special committee, which, ten years afterward, for greater effect, was enlarged. But in 1855, an independent Committee of Church Extension was established at St. Louis, the name of which was changed, in 1860, to that of the Board of Church Building, then the Board of Church Extension.

In 1845, after several years' agitation of the subject,

the Assembly directed the Board of Missions to appoint an Executive Committee at Louisville, furnished with a secretary and other officers, co-ordinate with the Executive Committee at Philadelphia, and to have the care of the western and south-western fields. In 1859, a South-western Advisory Committee, with a district secretary at New Orleans, was ordered, and the next year a similar Committee of the Pacific Coast at San Francisco; but in 1862, all this additional machinery was discontinued, as cumbersome, expensive, and unprofitable, and the management placed upon its previous simpler footing.

The sphere of the Board of Education was enlarged, in 1846 and the two years following, so as to include the assistance and care of Presbyterian colleges, academies, and primary schools, a part of its work which has grown constantly, though not rapidly.

Two other departments of Christian liberality and effort have been committed to similar agencies. For more than a century and a half the Presbyterian Church has systematically raised funds for the relief of disabled ministers and their families. But, in 1849, the General Assembly ordered collections for this pur. pose to be disbursed by the Board of Publication, a business transferred in 1852 to its own trustees; and in 1861 a secretary was appointed to devote his time. mainly to this enterprise, which has since more prosperously advanced. In 1864, the condition of the Freedmen at the South demanding immediate attention, two committees, one in Philadelphia, the other in Indianapolis, were appointed to take charge of educational and general evangelistic work among this

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