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is payable to order. Indorsements | The holder of a bill, whether transferare of three kinds, namely, in blank, able by delivery or not, ought, in all in full, and restrictive. The most cases of loss, immediately to give nousual species of indorsement is in tice of such accident to the acceptor blank, where no name is mentioned and all the antecedent parties, and but the indorser's; and although it also to give public notice of such loss, has been adjudged that such an in- in order to prevent any person from dorsement does not transfer the pro- taking it. The holder of a bill of perty and interest in the bill without above £5, expressed for value received some further act, it gives the indorsee, and payable after date, may, in case as well as the other persons to whom of loss, demand of the drawer anoit may be afterwards transferred, the ther bill, of the same tenor with the power of making himself assignee of original one, upon giving security, and the beneficial interest in the instru- indemnifying him, in case the lost bill ment, by filling it up payable to him- should again be found. self, or by writing over the indorser's name, pay the contents," which may, when an action is brought for recovery, be done at the time of trial. An indorsement in full is that in which the name of the person in whose favour it is made is mentioned; and this is also called a special indorsement, and may restrain the negotiability of the bill. A restrictive indorsement prevents the person to whom a bill is paid from making any further transfer of it, and may be expressed in these terms-" Pay the contents to A. B. only." No form is required for an indorsement; it is sufficient that the name of the indorser is written upon the back of the bill, which is most usual, or on any other part of it, either by the party making it, or by some other person duly authorised as his agent. The forgery of an indorsement in a bill transferable by indorsement only will convey no interest, and therefore any person coming into possession of a bill by a forged indorsement, does not acquire any interest in it, although he be not aware of the forgery, and consequently the original bolder may, in such case, recover against the acceptor or drawer, although the acceptor may have paid the bill; and if the person attempting to derive an interest under such indorsement sues the acceptor, he will be admitted to prove that the indorsement was not made by the person purporting to have made it. If a bill be lost, and it comes into the hand of some person who was not aware of such loss, for a valuable consideration, (and without a forgery having been committed) previous to its being due, such person, although deriving his interest in the bill from the person finding it, may recover the amount of the bill from the acceptor, or other parties to it, and the person who lost it will consequently forfeit all right of action.
The holder of a bill, either by indorsement or delivery, or both, is entitled to receive payment from the acceptor. It is in some cases necessary, and in all advisable, to present a bill for acceptance, not only because another security is thereby added to the bill, but because by acceptance only the person on whom the bill is drawn becomes debtor for the amount to the holder, and responsible to him. If the drawee refuses to accept, or, having accepted, if he refuses payment when due, the bill is dishonoured, and the holder, in case of neglect to communicate notice to the drawer or indorsers, within a reasonable time, will not be at liberty to resort to these parties, who, by that neglect, will be discharged from their respective obligations. The right of a drawer or indorser to receive notice, in case of a bill's being dishonoured, is so strong a principle of law, and in all cases so indispensable, that nothing but what has been, by the act of God, rendered impossible, can excuse the want of it. If the parties reside in the same place where the bill was dishonoured, notice should be given on the same day; and by that day's post, if the parties are resident out of that place. In inland bills, protested for non-acceptance, if the notice or protest thereof be not sent within 14 days, the drawer or indorser will not be liable for damages,
can be legally demanded, are, first, The costs on a returned bill, that the notarial fees, namely,
If the acceptor reside within the city walls.................ls. 6d. If without... .2s. 6d. For every additional mile.... Is. 6d.
appears to be decided that the act of one partner, in the name of the firm, is obligatory upon the others, though it may be on his own separate account, unless the persons claiming the benefit of this responsibility received the bill with the knowledge of the circumstance, that it was only the concern of one party. One partner may pledge the credit of his copartners to any amount, by an act in the way of trade and merchandize, done in the name of the firm. One partner, however cannot bind another by deed, without the express authority of all the parties bound. An authority given to one partner to receive all debts owing to, and to pay all debts due from the partnership, on its dissolution, does not authorize such party to indorse a bill of exchange in the name of the partnership, though drawn by him, and accepted by the debtor of the partnership after the dissolution. In order to render the dissolution of a partnership legal, it is indispensably necessary that notice of such dissolution should be published once in the London Gazette, with the signatures of the parties affixed; it is usual also, in the country, to advertise such notice in the provincial paper or papers published where the business has been carried on, that the persons with whom they have traded may the better be brought acquainted with that circumstance; and it is further necessary, in order that the dissolution may be brought home to the knowledge of the holder of any bill, or other negotiable instrufor signing his certificate, or for with-ment, in which the firm is concerned, drawing a petition against it, is illegal that the partners should give notice to by statute, and such instrument is null all their individual correspondents; in the Gazette, and provincial papers, otherwise, notwithstanding the notice they will stand responsible for all bills negotiated, by one of the former partners, in the name of the firm.
Where different parties to bills or notes have become bankrupt, the bolder may prove the full amount against them all, in the same manner as he may proceed in different actions at law till he has obtained a full satisfaction. The costs and charges of protesting bills, before an act of bankruptcy, may be proved, but those which accrue afterwards cannot; nor
is the holder of a bill or note entitled to any interest accruing after the date of the commission issued. The proof of the debt, arising out of the bill or notes, is to be made before the commissioners, at their sittings, as in case other debt. Any bill or note given by a bankrupt as a consideration
Out of Under. Stamp. In City. City and within limits A bill £20.......... 2s. 7s. 6d.[ 10s. £20-£100, 3s. £100-£500, 5s. 10s. 6d. £500or upward 10s. 17s. 6d. If beyond the limits, the additional charge of noting is to be added to the protest out of the city on each kind of bill.
11s. 13s. £1
In addition to these, the holder of a dishonoured bill may recover postage, commission paid to a banker, and interest; but no extraordinary expenses which any of the parties may incur by travelling, or by an advantageous engagement being defeated by want of punctual payment, can be legally demanded.
Partnership Concerns.-In partnership concerns, where one partner accepts a bill for himself and partners, the firm is bound to pay it if it concerns the trade; and from a decision in the case of Sheriff v. Wilkes, it
AN UNIVERSAL INTEREST TABLE,
For finding the Interest of any Sum of Money, at any rate per Cent, and
RULE-First multiply the Principal by the rate per Cent. and then by the number of Months, Weeks, or Days required; cut off two figures on the right side of the product, and collect from the Table the several sums against the corresponding numbers, which, when added together, will produce the amount required.
0 13 4
0 15 0
1 13 4
2 10 0
4 3 4
900 2 2 1000 19 229
75 0 0
83 6 8
6, T Leigh
in Ap 29. S Oct 11
Sept 4 Ma
4 rate per Cent.
Example-Required the Interest of £1467. 10s. for 10 Months, at 4 per Cent.
£. s. d.
£. s. 1467 10
£500 41 13 4
80 6 13 4
£587 48 18 4 per Ann.
If the two figures cut off be not cyphers add 2d. for every 10 contained in that sum when the calculation is for Months- for every 20, when it is for weeks-and a ‡ for every 40, when it is for Days.
Oct 11 Aldem
17, We 13 Wh
Oct 29. gerford,
Mon. b May 12 Aug 2.
29, Now 6. New Newbu Nov 8, Oct 11,
1, July June 9. week, a July 24 Walling
LIST OF FAIRS,
IN ENGLAND AND WALES.
Ampthill, May 4, Nov 30. Bed ford, 1st Tu, in Lent, April 21, July 5, Aug. 21, Oct. 11, Dec. 19 Biggleswade, Feb. 14, Sat. in Easter week, Whit Mon. Aug. 2, Nov. 8 Dunstable, Ash Wed. May 22, Aug 12, Nov 12. Elstow, May 14, Nov. 5. Harrold, Tu bf. May 13, Tu bf. July 6, Tu bf. Oct 11. Ickwell, April 6. Leighton Buzzard, Feb 5, 2nd Tu in April, Wh Tu July 26, Oct 24. Leonard's, Nov 7 and 17. Luton, April 18, Oct 18 Odell, Th in Whit week. Potton, 3d Tu in Jan O. S. last Tu in April, 1st Tu in July, Tu bf Oct 29. Shefford, Jan 28, April 6, May 19, Oct 11. Silsoe, May 13, Sept 21. Toddington, April 25, 1st Monday in June, N Sept 4, Nov 2, Dec 16. Woburn, Jan 1, March 28, July 13, Sept 25.
Abingdon, 1st Mon in Lent, May 6, June 20, Aug 5, Sept 19, Mon bf Oct 11, Dec 11. Aborfield, Oct 5. Aldemaston, May 6, July 7, Oct 11. Bracknell, April 25, Aug 22, Oct 1. Chapel Row, July 30. Cookham, May 16, Oct 11. East Hagburn, Th bf Oct 11. East Ilsley, Wed in Easter week, and every other Wed till July, Aug 26, and 1st Wed aft Sept 29, Wed aft Oct 17, Wed aft Nov 12. Farringdon, Feb 13 Whit Tu. Tu bf and Tu aft Oct 11, Oct 29. Finchamstead, April 23. Hungerford, last Wed in April, Aug 10, Mon. bf and aft Sept 29. Lambourn, May 12, Oct2, Dec 4. Long Cromarch, Aug 2. Maidenhead, Whit Wed. Sept 29, Nov 30. Mortimer, April 27, Nov 6. New Bridge, March 31, Sept 28. Newbury, Holy Th. July 5, Sept 4, Nov 8, Oakingham, April 23, June 11, Oct 11, Nov 2. Reading, Feb 2, May 1, July 25, Sept 21. Swallowfield, June 9. Thatcham, 2nd Tu aft Easter week, and 1st Tu aft Sept 29. Twyford, July 24, Oct 11. Wadley, April 5. Wallingford, Tu bf Easter, June 24,
The distinction of Towns and Villages in the following List may be ascertained by a reference to the annexed Population Returns, in which all the Towns and Boroughs of England are inserted, and those only.
Sept 29, Dec 17. Wantage, 1st Sat in March, 1st Sat in May, July 18, Oct 10, and 17. Waltham St. Lawrence, April 10. Windsor, Easter Tu. July 5, Oct Yattenden, Oct 13.
Amersham, Whit Mon. Sept 19. Aylesbury, Fri. aft Jan 18, Sat but one bf Easter, May 8, June 14, Sept 25, Oct 12. Beaconsfield, Feb 13, Holy Th. Buckingham, Mon se'nnight aft Epiph O. S. March 7, (if Leap Year March 6,) May 6, Whit Th. July 10 Sept 4, Oct 2, Sat aft Oct 11, Nov 8. Burnham, Feb 25, May 1, Oct 2. Chesham, April 21, July 22, Sept 28. Colnbrook, April 5, May 3. Eton, Ash Wed. Fenny Stratford, April 19, July 18, Oct 11, Nov 28. Hanslop, Holy Th. Íver, July 10. Ivinghoe, May 6, Oct 17, Lavenden, Tu bf Easter. Little Brickhill, May 12, Oct 29. Marlow, May 1, 2, 3, Oct 29. Newport Pagnell, Feb 22, April 22, June 22, Aug 29, Oct 22, Dec 22. Olney, Easter Mon. June 29, Oct 21. Risborough, May 6. Stoney Stratford, Aug 2, Frí bf 10th Oct. Nov 12. St. Peter's Chalfont, Sept 4. Wendover, May 12, Oct 2. Winslow, March 20, Holy Th. Aug 21, Sept 22, 1st and 2nd Th aft Oct 11. Wooburn, May 4, Nov 12. Wycomb, Mon bf Sept 29.
Caxton, May 5, Oct 12. Ely, Ascen Cambridge, June 24, (for a week). day, Oct. 29. Ickleton, July 22. Linton, Holy Th. July 30. March, (Isle of Ely), Mon bf Whit Sun. Whit Mon. 3d Tu in Oct. Roach, Rogation Mon. Sohaham, April 28. Sturbitch, Sept 28. Thorney, (Isle of Ely), July 1, Sept 21. Whittlesey, (Isle of Ely), Jan 25, June 13, Oct 26. Wisbeach (Isle of Ely), Sat but one bf. Easter. Wed bf Whit Sun. Sat bf Whit Sun, July 25, Aug 1 and 12.
Altringham, April 29, Aug 5, Nov
22. Budworth, Feb 3, April 5, Oct 2. Chester, last Th. in Feb. July 5, Oct 11. Congleton, Th bf Shrove Tide, May 12, July 13, Nov 22. Frodsham, May 15, Aug 21. Hulton, Sept 19 Knutsford, Whit Tu. July 10, Nov 8. Macclesfield, May 6, June 22, July 11, Oct 4, Nov 11. Malpas, April 5, July 25, Dec 8. Middlewich, Holy Th. Aug 5, Oct 29. Namptwich, March 26, Sept 4, Dec 4. Neston & Parkgate, Feb 2, May 1, Sept 29. Northwich, April 10, Aug 2, Dec 6. Over, May 15, Sept 25. Runcorn, last Fri in April & last Fri in Oct. Sandbach, Easter Tu. 1st Th. 4 de 25, May 1, Oct 23. Tarporley, May 1, Mon aft Aug 24, Dec 11. Winsford, Mays, Nov 25. CORNWALL.
Abbey Holm, Oct 29. Alston Bish Moor, last Th. in May, 1st Th. in Sept Bootle April 5, Sept 24. Brampton, 2nd Wed. aft. Whit. Sun. last Wed. in Aug. Carlisle, Aug. 15, 26, Sept. 8, 19, 1st & 2nd Sat. aft. Oct 11. Cockermouth, Wed. aft. Ist Mon. in May, & every fgt. aft. till Oct. 11, regular Coll fairs Whit. Mon. and Oct 11. Egre mont, Sept 19. Ireby, Feb. 24, Sept. 21. Keswick, Aug 2. Kirkoswold, Th bf. Whit. Sun. Aug 5. Longtown, Th. aft. Whit. Sun. Th. aft. Nov. 22. Penrith, April 25, 26, Whit. Tu. Sept.
8, Aug 5. Roseby Hill, Whit Mon. &
ton, 1st S
Bodmin, Jan 25, Tu & Wed. bf Whitington, Wed bf. Holy Th. Oct 18. Sun. Dec 6. Callington, 1st Tu in March, May 1, Sept 19, Nov 12. Camborn, Feb 24, June 29, Nov 11. Camelford, Fri aft March 10, May 26, July 17, Sept 5. East Looe, Feb 13, July 10, Sept 4 Oct 11. Falmouth, Aug 7, Oct 11. Fowey, Shrove Tu. May 1, Sept 10. Grampound, Jan 18, March 25, June 11. Helstone, Sat bf Mid Lent Sun. Sat bf Palm Sun. Whit Mon. July 20, Sept 9, Oct 28, Dec 20. Kellington, May 4, Sept 19, Nov 12. Killhampton, Holy Th. June 13. Landrake, July 19, Aug 24. Launceston, 1st Th in Mar 3d Th in April, (both free)
DERBYSHIRE. Alfreton, July 31, Oct 8, Nov 22. Ashborne, 1st Tu in Jan. Feb 18, April 3, May 21, July 5, Aug 16, Oct 11, Nov 29, if Nov 29 falls on Sun. the Sat bf. 2d Tu in March, 3d Tu in Sept. Ashover, April 25, Oct 15. Bakewell, April 23, June 11, Aug 27, Oct 15, Nov 19. Balsover, Easter Mon. May 5, June 24, Nov 1. Belper, May 12, Oct 31. Buxton, Feb 5, March 31, May 2, Sept 10, Oct 27. Chapel-le-Frith, Feb 7, March 24, 28, 29, April 19, 30, May 31, June 21, July 7, Aug 19, Oct 3, Nov 7. Chesterfield, Jan 25, Feb 28, if Sun. Whit Mon. July 6, Nov 17, Dec 6. Le-27, April 6, May 4, July 5, Sept lant, Aug 15. Liskeard, Shrove Mon. 25, Nov 30, (toll free.) Critch, April Mon bf Palm Sun. Holy Th. Aug 15, 6, Oct 11. Cubley, Nov 30. DarleyOct 2, Mon aft Dec 6. Lostwithiel, Flash, May 13, Oct 27. Derby, Jan July 10, Sept 6, Nov 13. Lower St. 25, March 21, 22, Fri in Easter week, Columb, July 9. Newlyn, Nov 8. Fri aft May 1, Fri in Whit week, July 11, D Northill, Sept 8, 1st Th in Nov. Pads-25, Sept 27, 28, & 29, Fri bf Oct 11, (by tow, April 18, Sept 21. Penryn, May custom.) Dronfield, Jan 10, April 25, 12, July 7, Dec 21. Penzance, Th of July 15, Aug 11, Sept 1. Duffeld, Advent.Th aft Trin Sun. Corpus Chris- March 1. Higham, 1st Wed aft Jan 1 ti. Probus, May 4, July 5, Sept 17. Hope, May 12, Sept 29. Matlock, Feb Redruth, Easter Tu. May 2, July 9, 25, May 9, July 16, Oct 24. Monyash, Sept 5, Oct 1. St. Austle, Whit Th Oct 28. Newhaven, Tu bf. 2d Wed in Nov 30. St. Columb, Th aft Nov 13, Sept. Oct 30. Pleasley, May 6, Oct Th in Mid Lent. St. Ewe, Th aft April 29. Ripley, Easter Wed. Oct 23. Saw 7, Nov 4. St.Germains, May 28, Aug 1. ley, Nov 12, if Sun 11. Tidswell, May St. Ives, Sat bf Advent. St. Lawrence, 3, 2d Wed in Sept. Oct 29. Winster, Aug 10, Oct 29. St. Martin, Feb 13. near Wirksworth, Feb 11, Easter Mon St. Mitchell, Oct 15, if Sun then Mon July 7, Oct 13. Wirksworth, Shrove aft. St. Neots, Easter Mon. May 5, Tu. May 12, Sept 8, Oct 4 & 5. Nov 5. St Stephen's, May 12, July 31, DEVONSHIRE. Sept 25. Saltash, Feb 2, July 25, Tu Alphington, 1st Th in June, Oct bf March 25, Tu bf June 24, Tu bf Sept Ashburton, 1st Th in March, 1st 29, & Tu bf Dec 25. Stratton, May 19, Th in June, Aug 10, Nov 11. Ax Abba Nov 8, Dec 11. Tregony, Shrove Tu. minster, April 30, Wed after June May 3, July 25, Sept 1, Nov 6. Truro, 24, 1st Wed aft Oct 11. Bampton 12,0 Wed in Mid Lent, Wed in Whit week, Whit Tu last Th in Oct. Barnstaple Nov 19, Decs. West Looe May 6. Fri bf April 21, Sept 19, 2d Fri in Dec Aug
Mort July Thin two on th aft A July
fall or Otter Wed Tu b Plym
Wed Otter theri