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numbers of their wives and children. The Christ must be destroyed." This zealot was king issued forthwith a proclamation to amongst the first to suffer the destruction he stop these proceedings, but the example of announced, for in his endeavour to fix the the metropolis spread into various parts of battering engines against the walls, a large the country, and similar scenes, though on a stone fell upon his head, and dashed out his smaller scale, were transacted at Norwich, brains. Driven to extremities, the Jews Lynn, Stamford, and York. Benedict and held a council, and offered, as Hovedeni Jocenus, the York Jews, were attacked on says, a mighty sum of money to be allowed their way to the coronation, and Benedict to escape with their lives, but this offer was being grievously bruised and wounded, was rejected. On which, as M. Paris observes, dragged into a church, where he was forced a certain foreign rabbin, or doctor of their to renounce Judaism, and to submit to the law, stood up amongst them and said,ceremony of baptism. This conversion, the “Men of Israel, our creator has commandheroic Israelite, with the zeal of a Daniel, ed that we should at any time be ready to steadily disclaimed, and when brought the die for our law; when he gave us life he next day into the presence of the king, and enjoined that with our own hands, and of asked whether he was a christian or no, he our own accord, we should devoutly restore answered, no! he was a Jew, and should die it to him again, rather than submit to the in that faith. To the honour of the king he cruelty of our enemies.” This invitation to was restored to his frierids, but to the re- imitate the example of the followers of Joseproach of his brutal assailants he died shortly phus, in the cave of Jotapata, was embraced after of his bruises. Jocenus returned to by many of the Jews, but others chose raYork, where a still more awful fate awaited ther to try the victors' clemency. Before the him. Either by accident or design, the city self-devoted victims began to execute the of York took fire, in the midst of a boister- sentence upon each other, they set fire to the ous right, and the flames spread'in all direc- castle, and committed all their property to tions. This calamity was seized upon to the flames, to prevent it from falling into renew the persecution against the Jews, and the hands of their enemies. The rabbin while the citizens were engaged in extin- then directed that the husbands should cut guishing the flames, the house of Benedict the throats of their own wives and children, was violently entered by the lawless rabble, and Jocenus began the execution first, by who murdered the wife and children of the applying the knife to the throats of Anne, deceased Jew, and applied to their own use his wife, and his five children ! The exam. all the property on which they could lay ple was speedily followed by the other mastheir rapacious hands. Jocenus, alarmed for ters of families, and afterwards, as a mark of his own safety, sought refuge in the castie, peculiar honour, the Rabbin cut the throat to which he removed his family and effects, of Jocenus himself! The last of the victims, and his example was followed by nearly all was the self-devoted adviser of the deed, the other Jews in the city. The governor who probably was the only actual suicide. of the castle having some business without, At dawn the next morning, the survivors its walls, left it for a short time in the hands announced the horrid catastrophe which had of the Jews, who, under an apprehension befallen their brethren, to the besiegers, that lie might have joined in the conspiracy casting the dead bodies of the victims over with their enemies, refused to re-admit him the wall, to convince them of the reality of on his return. The high sheriff, a man more their story. At the same time they suppliunder the guidance of his passions than of his cated for mercy, with an assurance, that if judgment, enraged by this indignity, issued it was granted to them, they would all behis writ of posse comitatus to raise the coun- come Christians. The merciless Barbarians try to besiege and take the castle. And now, pretending to compassionate their sufferings, says Hemingford, the canon of Gisburgh, obtained admission into the castle. No was shown the zeal of a Christian populace. sooner was this effected, than they flew uponi An innumerable company of armed men, as the poor Jews, and slew every one of them, well from the city as from other parts of the though to the last they cried out for bapcounty, rose simultaneously, and begirt the tism. With their hands reeking with blood, fortress. The high sheriff began to repent the murderers hastened to the cathedral, of his inconsiderate order, and the wiser and where the bonds, which the Christians had better sort of the citizens stood aloo from a given to the Jews, (money lenders) were flood that might soon overwhelm themselves. deposited. These documents they took out A great many of the clergy, however, of the chests, and committed to the flames, joined the besiegers, and a certain fanatical thus freeing themselves and others from friar, clad in a white vesture, was every their obligations. This massacre happened where seen crying out "the enemies of | at York, on the 11th of March, 1189; and

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it is estimated, that no fewer than from fif- an army of priests, monks, and others, to the teen hundred to two thousand Jews in York, amount of ten thousand men, with which he fell victims to the sanguinary persecution, pursued the spoilers, and overtook them at When the news of these deeds of blood Myton-upon-Swale, in the neighbourhood of reached the king, who had embarked for the Buroughbridge, where he attacked them holy land, he sent orders to his chancellor with more fury than skill, and where he sufand regent, the Bishop of Ely, to go down fered a signal defeat. into Yorkshire, and execute strict justice The reign of Edward III. which shines upon the offenders; but the regent ill dis- with so much lustre in the annals of Eng. charged the trust confided to him, for he land, constitutes a splendid period in the contented himself by the imposition of a few history of York. In the year 1327, the first mulcts and fines upon the inhabitants, and year of his reign ; that monarch ordered his not a single individual was executed, though whole army to rendezvous in this city, in the crime might have been brought home to order to oppose Robert Bruce, king of Scotnumbers, not only amongst the citizens, but land, who, with an army of twenty thousand also amongst persons of the military and horse was ravaging the northern part of the ecclesiastical orders. Notwithstanding the kingdom. While Edward lay at York prehorrors of this sanguinary persecution, a paring for this expedition, there came to his new colony of Jews settled in York in the aid John Lord Beaumont of Hainault, one same reign, and remained in this city till the of the bravest knights of the age, accomtime of Edward I. and Jubbergate and Jew- panied with other gallant kvights and gentleberry, probably both derive their names men, who, with his retinue composed a band from having been the favourite seats of their of five hundred, or according to Knightson, residence.

of two thousand men. Most of these foIn the reign of King John, a convention reigners were lodged in the suburbs; but to was held at York between the English and Lord John himself the king assigued the Scotch kings and their nobles, in which an abbey of White Monks in the city. The existing difference was settled by an agree king with the queen's mother, lodged in the ment that the two sons of the former should monastery belonging to the Friars Minors, marry the two daughters of the latter. In which must have been an extensive and the last year of the troublous reign of king stately building, since each of them kept a John, the northern barons laid siege to York, separate court, and that of the king was very but retreated from before its walls, on re magnificent. For six weeks, Edward had his ceiving one thousand marks from its inha- court at York, with an army of sixty thoubitants.

sand men, which, notwithstanding its numThe marriage of the daughter of Henry bers, was well supplied with provisions, of III. king of England, to Alexander, the third which the citizens felt no lack. The foson of the king of Scotland, took place in reigners too had reason to be satisfied with the cathedral church of this city amidst very their entertainment, but jealousies arose besplendid festivities in the year 1230. tween them and the English, which were not

In 1298, another parliament sat at terminated without bloodshed. On Trinity York, when the English barons attended, and Sunday, the king gave a magnificent enterthe king's confirmation of Magua Charta, tainment at the monastery. To his usual and also Charta de Forresta, was read to retinue of five hundred knights, he added them. During this reign of Edward 1. the sixty more; and the queen's mother had in courts of justice were removed from London her suite sixty ladies of the highest rank and to York, where they remained for several greatest beauty in England. At night was months, till the king's return after the fa- given a splendid ball, but while the courtiers mous battle of Falkirk. York, then ranked were in the midst of their amusement amongst the English ports, but Hull had al- strange and hideous noise interrupted them ready begun to rise into fame as a maritime and alarmed the whole court." A content town, and soon absorbed a large share of the had arisen between the foreign auxiliaries coramerce which was formerly confined to and a body of English archers, who lodged

with them in the suburbs; and hostilities In this reign the flame broke out, which being once begun abettors successively came for nearly a century involved England and in on both sides, till near three thousand of Scotland in that general conflagration, with the archers were collected. Many of the the vents of which every reader of English Hainaulters were slain, and the rest were history is familiar. The Scots marched into obliged to retire and fortify themselves in England in great force, and having laid the their quarters. During the quarrel, part of country waste to the gates of York, retired. the city took fire, and it was with equal dif. The archbishop fired with indignation, raised

* See Myton, Vol. II.

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ficulty that the king was able to subdue the , ings, challenged the Hainaulters to battle ; flames and to restrain the fiery spirits with this challenge was accepted, and the battle which he had to contend. The foreigners was fought in a street called Watling-gate, breathed nothing but vengeance, and on the with such desperate fury that five hundred night following, headed by their officers, and twenty-seven of the foreigners were slain they fell upon the Lincolnshire and North- or drowned in the Ouse, and two hundred amptonshire archers, and slew about three and forty-two fell of the English. During hundred of them. This rash act induced the wars in France, in which Edward and his about six thousand of the English to com- renowned son, the Black Prince, gained the bine, and to take the desperate resolution to memorable victories of Crecy and Poictiers, sacrifice every soul of the Hainaulters to the and rendered captive the French king. David manes of their countrymen. By the firm- Bruce, the competitor of John Baliol, king ness and wise precautions of the king, this of Scotland, undertook to invade England, catastrophe was arrested and the tranquillity which was then left to the sole government of the city was ultimately restored. During of the queen. Bruce penetrated to the gates these transactions ambassadors arrived in of York, and burnt part of the suburbs, havYork from Scotland to treat for peace, but ing laid waste the country through which after some weeks the negociations broke off, he passed with fire and sword. Philippa, and the king with all his barons marched at the queen regent, then at York, having colo the head of his whole army against the Scots, lected a powerful army, repulsed the inva. in all the martial pump of those chivalrous ders, and pursued them to Neville's cross, times. It is not the province of this history in the county of Durham, where, on the 17th to follow Edward through his campaigns; of October, 1347, she gained a signal victory, suffice it to say, that after a keen pursuit the having slain fifteen thousand of the Scots, Scotch army was at last overtaken and and taken Bruce prisoner. The victorious couped up by the English in Stanhope-park, queen having rescued her country from the from which they were suffered to escape by hands of these cruel invaders, returned to the treachery of Lord Mortimer, at the mo-York, and subsequevtly presented king ment when they were ready to surrender David to her husband and sovereign. from the cravings of famine. Edward, cha

The unfortunate reign of Richård II. grined at the luss of his prey, when it seemed was extremely favourable to the citizens of within his grasp, returned to York and after- York. That monarch visited the city seven wards to London, having previously dis- ral times, and granted the citizens many missed Lord John of Hainault, to the Conti- charters, immunities, and privileges. On nent, bounteously rewarded for his services. his visit to York, in the year 1389, to adjust The next year Lord Juhn, returned with his a dispute between the archbishop and the niece Philippa, the most celebrated beauty dean and chapter, the king took his sword of the age, and with a great retinue con- from his side, and gave it to be borne before ducted her to York, where the court then William de Selby, who was then dignified was, in order to her marriage with the king with the title of Lord Mayor, which is rein this city. On the Sunday before the eve tained to the present day by the first magis. of St. Paul's conversion in the year 1329, trate of this city.* In this reign Edmund the marriage was publicly solemnized in the cathedral, by the archbishop. Upon these life was fixed in the reign of Edward 1.

* A maximum upon the necessaries of happy nuptials, says Froissart, the whole which continued for many years with cerkingdom teemed with joy, and the court attain modifications, and in the year 1393, York expressed these feelings in a more than an ordinance for the price of victuals and ordinary manner; for three weeks the feast drink was proclaimed in a full court at

York, by the advice and consent of our ings were continued without intermission, lord the king's justices" in mauner folthere were nothing but justs and tournaments lowing: in the day time, and maskings, revels, and

Good wheaten bread 4 loaves per

Strong beer per gallon ............... interludes with songs and dances in the

Claret wine per gallon................ night. The Hainault soldiery, actuated by a Red wine, the best .................... licentious and revengeful spirit, took advan- A carcase of choice beef............ XX iv

A Scotch cow ........................ X tage of this carnival to treat the inhabitants

A carcase of mutton.... with outrage and violence, and to such an

of the best veal ......... excess did they carry their misconduct, that

a lamb .................... they ravished several of the wives, daugh- A hog, the best .....................

iv ters, and maid servants of the inhabitants, A capon .....................................

A hen .... and set fire to the suburbs of the city, by

A fat

goose...... which a whole parish was nearly destroyed. A fresh salmon, the largest & best ii The citizens scandalized by those proceed- Oats per bushel................

is

viii viii

ii si

viii iii iv

i iv

Langley, the Afth son of Edward III. was Henry VI., the hero of Agincourt, becreated the first Duke of York. A conta- ing engaged during the principal part of his gious distemper, of the nature of a plague, reign in the wars with France, made only raged with great violence throughout Eng- one visit to York, when he and his queen land, of which malady there died, in the went to perform their devotions at the venecity of York alone, in the years 1390 and table shrine of St. John of Beverley. 1391, twelve thousand souls. In the nine- During the civil wars between the rival teenth year of the king's reign two sheriff's houses of York and Lancaster, this city was were appointed instead of three bailiffs, and the rendezvous of armies, and the theatre the city of York was created into a county on which was displayed the memorials of of itself.

royal vengeance. After the battle of WakeThe inhabitants of York were not un- field, in which Richard, Duke of York met mindful of these benefactions and royal con- his fate, the head of that nobleman was cessions, and they took the first opportunity placed upon Micklegate bar, as were also the to manifest their gratitude to Richard, even heads of a number of his followers. The after the deposition and murder in Pontefract sanguinary battle of Towton changed the castle. Henry Percy, Earl of Northumber- fortune of the two roses,t and the victorious land, having lost his brother and son in the Edward IV. caused the head of his father battle of Shrewsbury, Richard Scroop, and of his adherents to be taken from Mic. Archbishop of York, whose brother the klegate bar, and the heads of the Lancasteking (Henry 1V.) had beheaded, and Thomas rian nobles, Devon and Kime, to take their Mowbray, Earl Marshal of England, whose places. father died in exile, united with Lords Fal- When Edward departed this life, his conberg, Bardolf, Hastings, and others, in a brother Richard was at York, and had a conspiracy to deposethe occupier of Richards funeral requiem performed in the cathedral throne. The archbishop's impatience pre- of that city for the repose of his soul.cipitated the disclosure of the plot. Scroop After Richard III. had usurped the soveframed several articles of impeachment reign power, and had been crowned in Lonagainst the King, which he caused to be fixed don, he came to York, where the ceremony upon the doors of the churches in his own of his coronation was performed a second diocese, and sent them in the form of a cir- time, in the cathedral, by Archbishop Ron Cular into other counties in the Kingdom, in- therham. Tournaments, masques, and riting the people to take up arms to reform other diversions, together with the most abuses. To strengthen this call he preached luxurious feasting followed the coronation, a sermon to three congregations assembling and by their immense costs exhausted the for religious worship in the cathedral, and public treasury. Richard distinguished roused 20,000 men suddenly to arms, who the city of York by various marks of royal joined his standard at York, on which was munificence; and the citizens showed their painted the five wounds of our Saviour.

gratitude by a steady adherence to his To subdue this rebellion Henry sent an army interests. of 30,000 men into Yorkshire, under the After the battle of Bosworth field had command of the Earl of Westmoreland and placed the crown on the head of Henry VII. the Prince John, on the arrival of the king's the people of Yorkshire and Durham refused forces at York, they found the archbishop to pay a land-tax imposed for the purpose of encamped out of the gates of the city, on the defraying the expenses of the army. The forest of Galtres, so advantageously, that it Earl of Northumberland was the reputed was not judged advisable to attack them. The adviser of this measure, which rendered him wily Earl, affecting to favour the views of the so unpopular, that the populace assailed his insurgents, solicited an interview with the house, and slew the Earl, with many of his archbishop, who took with him the Earl servants. The sword being thus drawn, Marshal

. Having got them into his toils, they threw away the scabbard, and chose for and plied them well with wine, he arrested their leader Sir John Egremont, a man them on the spot for high treason, and their greatly disaffected to the house of Lancaster, lives paid the forfeit of their precipitaney and John a Chambre, a man of humble birth, and misplaced confidence. In 1408 the Earl but possessed of a vast share of popular inof Northumberland again appeared in arms,

* See Vol. i. page 422. and was defeated and slain on Bramham

+ See Vol. i. page 411, Moor, by Sir Thomas Rokesby, High-sheriff # Except the treasury was very scantily of Yorkshire. Henry soon after came

to supplied it could not have been easily York, and completed his revenge by the of lite, for it appears, that about this time

exhausted by purchasing the necessaries execution of several of the insurgent citi- wheat sold for 2s. a quarter, barley for zens, and the confiscation of their estatos.

18. Iod. and oats for Is. 2d,

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Auence. Thomas Earl of Surrey being sent tion of a chalice, and the five wounds of against the insurgents, he defeated their Christ :* and they wore on their sleeve an principal balid, and made John a Chambre emblem of the five wounds with the name with several of his followers prisoners. The of Jesus wrought in the middle. The rebels rest of the malcontents fled to York, and succeeded in taking both Hull and York, afterwards dispersed, while Sir John Egre- and laid siege to Pontefract Castle, in mont found an asylum in Flanders, under which the Archbishop and Lord Darcy, at the protection of Margaret Duchess of Bur- the head of a body of the King's troops gundy. John a Chambre, less fortunate, had thrown themselves. The castle speedily was brought to trial, and executed at York, surrendered, and the prelate and nobleman with great solemnity, upon a high gallows, joined the insurrection. The Duke of Norwith a number of his adherents suspended folk, at the head of a small army of 5000 around him.

men, was sent against the rebels, and the From this period the annals of York king issued a proclamation, in which he told contain scarcely any important transaction, them that they ought no more to pretend to till the year 1536, the 27th of Henry VIII. give a judgment with regard to government, when the suppression of the monastries and than a blind man with regard to colours.com the progress of the reformation excited a " and we," he added, “ with our whole great sensation in the northern counties. “council, think it right strange that ye who The suppression of the religious houses, it- " are but brutes and inexpert folks, do take flicted a terrible blow on the grandeur of " upon you to appoint us, who be meet or not York. In the reign of Henry V. this city for our council." The Duke of Norfolk contained, besides the cathedral, 41 parish encamped near Doncaster, where he entered churches, 17 chapels, 16 hospitals, and 9 into a negotiation with the rebels, which religious houses, including the noble abbey was protracted til the Pilgrims of Grace, of St. Mary, without Bootham Bar. No reduced almost to a state of famine, and sooner, says Drake, was the word given, dispirited by the suduen rising of the Dog, then down fell the monasteries, priories, at two different times, when they meditated chapels, and hospitals in this city, and with an attack, began, to disperse, and suffered them, for company, I suppose, 18 parish their leaders to be taken prisoners. Some of churches, the materials and revenues of all them, with the abbots of Fountains, Jer. being converted to secular uses. The lazars, vaux, and Rivalx, were executed at Tyburn, sick and old people were turned out of hos. Sir Robert Constable was hanged in chains pitals, and priests and nuns out of religious over Beverley gate, at Hull; Lord Darcy houses, to starve or beg their bread. The was beheaded on Tower Hin; and Aske, the natural consequence of such sweeping and leader of the insurrection, was suspended indiscriminate reforms was to excite a spirit from a tower, probably Clifford's Tower, at of rebellion, and in Yorkshire a formidable York. In August 1541, Henry VIII, in insurrection was raised by Robert Aske, a order to tranquilize the minds of his subjects, gentleman of considerable fortune, who pos- made a tour into the north : On his arrival sessed great influence in the country. The at Barnsdale, in the West-Riding of this other chief persons concerned were Sir county, he was met by two hundred gentle Robert Constable, Sir John Bulmer, Sir men in velvet coats and suitable accoutreThomas Percy, Sir Stephen Hamilton, ments, with four thousand tall yeomen and Nicholas Tempest, and William Lumley, three hundred clergymen, who,

on their Esqrs. Their enterprize they called “ the knees, made submission to his Majesty, and pilgrimage of grace, and they swore that presented him with £600. From thence the they were moved by no other motive than king repaired to York,' where he spent 13 their love to God, their care of the king's days, and returned to London by way of person and issue, their desire to purify the Hull, crossing the Humber, into Lincolnnobility, to drive base-born persons from shire. Five years after this visit Henry died, about the king, to restore the church, and leaving behind him the terrible character to suppress heresy. Allured by these fair that throughout his reign he' neither spared pretensions, about 40,000 men, from the man in his anger nor woman in his lust. counties of York, Durham, and Lancaster, The first printing press was erected in York flocked to their standard, and their zeal, no in his reign by Hugo Goes, the son of an inless than their numbers inspired the court génious printer at Antwerp. The site of this with apprehensions. When the army was put infant establishment was in the Minster-yard, in motion, a number of priests marched at near St. William's college, where the royal their head in the habits of their order, carry- printing press was afterwards placed in 1649, ing crosses in their hands ; in their banners while Charles I. was at York.

as woven a crucifix, with the representa- * Fox, vol. ii. page 992.

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