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Part of the ironwork of one door has been found, and the impost of the central wall. The south half of the west gate, like so many of the double gates on the Roman wall, had been blocked up in late times, and only the north half used. Curiously enough, the present highway now runs through (or over) the north half. In the blocking of the south half a grand Corinthian capital, part of the drum of a double column, and other architectural details were found. One of the large insulæ north of the forum has been partly excavated, and it is expected that it will be proved that a large house stood at each corner, with an extensive garden or open ground behind. Messrs. Fox and Hope have also established a number of new facts with regard to the basilica, which had escaped previous explorers. Articles of bronze, iron, and pottery have been found in great variety and profusion.

We are delighted to find that intelligent England is at last being to some extent roused to the importance and interest of the history beneath our feet. Every effort should be made to support the Society of Antiquaries in their present undertaking at Silchester, so that it may not in any way languish for want of funds. The subject should be brought, in an attractive way, before every local archaological association. We venture to commend to the authorities at Burlington House the offering of duly qualified Silchester lecturers, during the coming winter session, who might rouse interest in the provinces. Here is a popular quotation from what Mr. J. W. Grover, F.S.A., said on this subject recently at Oxford: They had an account of excavations made at Silchester in 1830, when about 200 brass Roman coins were found on a skeleton. In 1865-66-67 and 1873 the explorations were continued by Mr. Joyce, who read a valuable paper on the subject before the Society of Antiquaries. Mr. Grover then mentioned that the discovery had been made of a house which was supposed to have been the house of a Roman Chief Magistrate, the remarkable thing about the residence being that it stood very near the forum. The story was that the house was built about the year 50, when the Apostles were on earth. It was re-erected in the year 190, and re

modelled and rebuilt in the year 300 or 320. That was to say that they got evidence of the house extending over a period of very nearly 300 years, with continued occupation and improvement. Alluding amidst applause to the forum at Silchester, the lecturer said that they had a thing which nobody had except at Pompeii. The Italians had got a forum which it took Vesuvius to give them, but the French, Spanish, and German nations could boast of nothing of the kind. In England they had a Roman forum of the most perfect kind; it was a most wonderful structure, and they could beat them "into a cocked hat" at Rome. The building was 275 feet across on one side and 313 feet on the other. In the centre was a market-place 131 feet by 141 feet round, and there was a place in which the people could walk in wet weather. On the west side of the building was the basilica or Westminster Hall, but he found that the former was 18 feet longer than the latter. They should look upon these discoveries with profound reverence and awe. Mr. Grover took his hearers an imaginary walk round the forum, explaining the butcher's shops, the banking establishment, the place for chancery business, the merchants' hall, and the high priest's office, finishing up with the "oyster bar" at the corner of the building.

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The threatened controversy on the BalliolBruce Dumfriesshire shield will probably end in no controversy at all. The Balliols have either no partisans, or the Balliolists, if there be any, do not show fight. Orle and escarbuncle have had never a word uttered in their defence, which looks rather bad for the orle and the escarbuncle. Meanwhile, the challenged seal is not in use. Probably it has not yet attained to the dignity of a graven image, and remains a devout, or undevout, imagination merely. It seems to be taken for granted in the county that the arms are doomed utterly. At any rate, the County Council now knows the facts, and will no doubt act worthily when the time comes for reconsideration of this vexed question of heraldry.

It has been decided to form a chapter of Scottish heralds to meet twice yearly in the

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Mr. Blair, F.S.A., writes to us that a most interesting discovery of twelve bronze vessels of the Roman period has recently been made in the north of England. A week or two ago a farm servant was ploughing in a field about three or four miles to the north of Newcastle, on a farm belonging to Mr. C. L. Bell, of Woolsington Hall. The plough struck against something, and on the man examining the object, it proved to be a large caldron-like vessel, about 2 feet in diameter, formed of thin plates of bronze. It probably had two handles, as one of them, 6 inches in diameter, was unearthed. Within this large vessel were six patella, three of them with the usual projecting horizontal handle, while the handles. of the remaining three have been broken off. The bottoms of all are decorated with concentric circles in relief, similar to the saucepan in the possession of the Rev. T. Stephens, of Horsley-on-Rede, found a year or two ago by him on the Wanny Crags, in Redesdale. These vary in diameter from

6 inches to 8 inches. There is also an elegant patera, 12 inches in diameter, and 3 inches high, with one handle riveted to the side; the remaining five vessels are bowlshaped, and vary in diameter from 10 to 15 inches. The site of the discovery is on a portion of what was in olden times, and appears in old maps, as Prestwick Carr, a great resort of water-fowl. Eight of these bronze vessels have now found a permanent resting-place in the museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle at the Black Gate in that city.

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of interest, with their inscriptions, etc, and to obtain such information as is possible regarding others that may have been removed or destroyed; (3) To watch carefully works carried on in and about churches, etc., so as to prevent injury to monuments and tombstones; (4) To repair such tombs and monuments as shall be approved of, and that the funds admit of. The necessity of the work of such a society is even more obvious than in England. The condition of many of the most important tombs and monuments in Ireland is a scandal.

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Here are a few sample horrors from one of the leaflets of the association: At Clare Island the tomb of Grace O'Malley, the "Queen of the West," "a handsome cutstone canopied one, in the chancel of St. Bridget's Abbey, has the lower portion of it embedded in the earth, and covered with manure, the place being used as a shelter for cattle !" At Ballintubber Abbey, County Mayo, the tomb of "Tibot-na-lung" ("Theobald of the Ship"), son of Grace O'Malley, and First Earl of Mayo, is subject to the same disgraceful treatment; it is a beautiful example of the transitional style of art, where the newly-introduced classic or Italian mouldings in general outline have been carried out by native workmen. At Lusk Church, County Dublin, the fine raised tomb of Sir Christopher Barnewall and his wife, with coats of arms on it, and two full-sized recumbent figures, stands exposed to the destructive effects of heat and cold, sun, rain and

At Kilfane old church, County Kilkenny, a splendid thirteenth-century, fulllength and mail-clad knightly figure of one of the De Cantvilles is half buried in weeds and rubbish, and at any time liable to destruction. At Ardfert, Kerry, a tomb of one of the Knights of Kerry is reported to be "in a farmyard." At Buttevant sculptured stones lie scattered about the churchyard in great confusion, apparently belonging to richly decorated tombs. At Kilmallock Priory a tomb of the "White Knight" "and many other tombs" are reported to be "ankle-deep in cow-dung." This most useful society is about to issue its second annual report, when we hope to again call attention to its operations.

A discovery of considerable interest was made in the first week of August by General Pitt-Rivers, who is engaged in making further investigations with the view of definitely ascertaining the approximate date of Wans Dyke. Although his finds last year pointed to a pre-Roman work, nothing certain could be said on the matter. On the present occasion, however, a light has been thrown on the subject which proves beyond all doubt that the work is Roman or post-Roman. On Monday, August 4, about eight feet below the level, amongst other things brought to the surface were two pieces of Samian ware. They were found in that part of the earth which was thrown up when the Dyke was constructed, and as Samian ware was introduced into Britain by the Romans, it conclusively proves that those people must have been here before the cútting was made. In addition to the Samian ware, an iron clamp was found in the same place, such as was used to fasten the leather harness of the Romans, and similar to many which have been unearthed at Bokerly Dyke and at the Romano-British villages in that neighbourhood. Thus, thanks to the indefatigable efforts of General Pitt-Rivers, there is clear and convincing proof that the earthwork of Wans Dyke is post-Roman. It is difficult to assign an exact date, but it is probable that it was somewhere between A.D. 200 and 400 that the Dyke was made.

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An interesting discovery of extensive wallpaintings at the church of St. Breage, near Helston, Cornwall, has recently been made by the vicar, Rev. Jocelyn Barnes. At present they have only been partially uncovered. The paintings include a great St. Christopher about 11 feet high, and a large Crucifixion, which is described as "" surrounded with emblems of different trades, connected with His body by jets of blood." We expect that, in the latter case, the picture will turn out to be, on more careful examination, a portrayal of the Seven Sacraments, which were usually in medieval wall-painting thus linked with the Sacred Wounds. A figure of St. Conentinus, the first Bishop of Cornwall, who died in 401, has also been uncovered; he is represented vested in a cope, pastoral staff in left hand, and giving the benediction with the right hand. By his side is a fish.

The preliminary excavations on the site of the Montgomeryshire Abbey of Strata Marcella, to which we alluded in our last issue, have now been made, and have yielded encouraging results. We sincerely hope that Mr. Morris C. Jones, F.S.A., and Mr. Stephen Williams, who are in charge of the work, will meet with such a response to their appeal as to enable them to satisfactorily carry out their labours. The work already done gives evidence of a fine conventual church, with a nave 50 feet in width, and of imposing proportions. To the north of the chancel a flagged space about 25 feet square has been exposed. The minor discoveries include a curious round boss of worked bronze, a piece of finely-worked silver gilt, many fragments. of stained glass, and a large number of tiles. that pertain to thirteen distinct patterns. Ten of the tile patterns are the same as those recently found by Mr. Stephen Williams at Strata Florida.


Sir Charles Dilke has lost a most interesting relic of Charles I. It is a memorial ring of that monarch, and contains a portrait of the head with worn features and a melancholy expression, placed under an oval glass or crystal with bevelled edges. It was missed not long after its return from the Stuart Exhibition of 1889. Anyone who has knowledge of the relic may, on communication with the

publisher of the Athenæum, depend upon an adequate reward should the ring be recovered. If, as has been surmised, the ring has been stolen, it will probably be offered for sale in America or in foreign countries. We are glad to be able to give an engraving of this ring, which may prove of service in securing its return.

The parish church of Winstead, in Holderness, has just emerged with much credit from the dangers of a really necessary restoration. Mr. Temple Moore was the architect. He is one of the few gentlemen of repute in the profession (might they not be named on

the fingers of one hand?), whose innate antiquarian perceptions enable them to be safely entrusted with the work of reparation of our ancient fabrics. In lowering the nave to its old level, the base of the font was discovered. The font itself, wherein presumably the famous Andrew Marvel was baptized, had been for a long time desecrated as a horse-trough, but has been now restored to sacred use. The body of the pulpit and the sounding-board are old, and a new pulpit staircase has been made out of the old altar-rails. The oldfashioned pews have been converted into a dado which runs round the nave and aisle, and the handsome oak chancel screen has been carefully repaired and reinstated in its proper place, with the addition of a vaulted loft and cornice.

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Brief reference was made last month to the recovery of the original Brazen Nose of Brasenose College, Oxford. Antony Wood and Camden both tell the story of the migration of Oxford scholars to Stamford in the year 1334, owing to a riotous feud. The students of Brasenose Hall, as it was then called, departed in a body to Stamford, taking with them a knocker consisting of a bronze nose, the emblem of their collegiate society. At the Lincolnshire town they built a new Brasenose Hall, and fastened on the chief gateway this nose of brass. After the return of the students to Oxford, the buildings passed into the hands of the corporation of Stamford; but in 1688 the college was all demolished, save only the ancient doorway. The house erected on the site subsequently passed into private hands, together with the doorway, door, and knocker. At a recent sale of this property Brasenose College happily became its purchaser, and hence have recovered and restored to Oxford, after an absence of five and a half centuries, the knocker wrenched

from its position by the hastily departing students of the fourteenth century. With regard to this emblem, "A. J. B." writes to the Guardian, that in appearance the knocker bears every sign of the very greatest antiquity. It is in the form of a lion's mask of bronze, with an iron ring through the mouth. There is a circular iron plate at the back, which, if not contemporary, is certainly very ancient. The brows of the lion are boldly projected and the teeth are rudely engraved, though the face as a whole is well modelled; while the nose is by no means so prominent a feature as to justify the caricaturing image of more modern times. Where the iron ring issues from the corners of the mouth it is embellished on each side with a roughly indicated bird's, or gryphon's, or serpent's head, something like those on the sanctuary knocker at Durham. These have a decidedly Norman look, and altogether there is little hesitation in assigning the knocker to a date at least as early as the twelfth century.

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It will gladden the hearts of all true antiquaries to learn that the eminent ecclesiastical lawyer (Dr. Jeune, Q.C.), whose opinion was taken with regard to the legality of using the bequest of the late Mr. Needham for demolishing the chancel of Chapel-en-le-Frith church and building a new one, has clearly pronounced against the lawfulness of such a use according to the terms of the bequest. The hands of the spoiler have, therefore, for a time been stayed, and we trust will be eventually checkmated. The longer the

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HADRIANVS. AVG[USTUS]. CO[N]S[UL]. III. P[ATER]. PATRIE]= Head of Hadiian to the right.

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AEQVITAS AVG[USTI]. S[ENATUS] C[ONSULTO] Equity erect, looking to the left, and holding scales and a sceptre.

From the mention of his third consulate and the title "Father of his Country," this piece may be dated between the years 128 and 138 A.D., the last ten years of his life and reign. Roman coins found at Little Chester have been very numerous, but it has now become difficult to trace them. It will much assist in bringing together an authentic record of these finds if those having such in their possession will kindly communicate with Mr. Bailey.

A supply-reservoir is now being constructed on high ground at Westerton, near Bishop Auckland. During the work five skeletons have been found two feet below the surface. The most likely supposition is that these remains point to the Battle of Neville's Cross of 1346; for the night before the English army lay in Auckland Park, and in the morning moved on by Westerton Heights to Merrington, where they encountered the Scotch van, the two places being about a mile and a half apart.

The oldest and most influential member of the Society of Antiquaries, John Clayton, F.S.A., of the Chesters, has passed away since our last number went to press. At the meeting of the society held on July 30, an interesting memorial paper was appropriately read by the veteran Dr. Bruce. The first paper which he gave to the Newcastle Society was dated November 6, 1843, and describes the excavation of a fine series of chambers near the east rampart of the station of Cilurnum. His next paper described the mile castle at Cawfields. The excavation of that castle was a most important event; up to that time the structure of these castles on the line of the wall had not in any way been understood. The uncovering of the Roman Bridge on the North Tyne; the laying bare of the walls, gates, and streets of the station of Borcovicus; the excavation of the gates and forum of Cilurnum; and the finding of the bronze tablet conferring the freedom of Rome upon certain troops serving in Britain, were some of the more striking works in which this eminent antiquary was engaged.

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It is with great and most sincere regret that we here briefly chronicle the death, on August 2, at his house at Strood, of that venerable, accomplished, and amiable Kentish Antiquary, Mr. Charles Roach Smith, F.S.A. He was born at Landguard, Isle of Wight, in 1805, and at an early age became keenly interested in antiquarian pursuits, especially of a Romano-British character. He was one of the chief founders of the British Archæ

ological Association, and contributed, in 1845, essays to its first volume on Roman London, and Numismatics. From that period, up to the very year of his death, Mr. Roach Smith was a most assiduous and painstaking writer on archæology. The Isle of Wight, and the counties of Berks, Wilts, and Kent were the chief fields of his investigation. In addition to contributing frequently to the Archæologia, to the journals of various provincial archæological societies, to the Athenæum, Gentleman's Magazine, and other periodicals, he was also the editor of the Inventorium Sepulchrale. He further wrote the Antiquities of Richborough, Illustrations of Roman London, and six volumes of the Collectanea Antiqua. His important collection of London antiquities is in

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