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Thursday, July 10, was devoted to visits to All Souls' College; to the interesting old church and crypt of St. Peter-in-the-East, for parts of which Mr. J. Park Harrison again claimed Saxon origin; to Magdalen College, with its hall panelling brought from the dissolved Abbey of Reading; to that fine specimen of the elaborate Norman style, the church of Iffley; to the lazar house of St. Bartholomew Castle; to the keep of the castle of Oxford; and to the crypt of the chapel of St. George, found during the building of the new gaol. In the evening Mr. Bruton read a well-illustrated paper on "The Walls of the City of Oxford in the Thirteenth Century."


On Friday the members visited the fine late Norman church of Witney, Burford, Minster Lovel, and Shipton. Among the papers read in the evening The Saxon Church of St. Leonard, Wallingford," by Mr. J. P. Harrison n; "The Anglo-Saxon Charters of Abingdon Abbey," by Mr. W. de Grey Birch; and a concluding discourse, by Mr. A. J. Butler, on the recent recovery of the old brazen nose of Brasenose College.

Excursions on Saturday, 12th, to Dorchester, Ewelm, Crowmarsh, and Wallingford concluded a most successful anniversary.

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Proceedings and Publications of The first part of the thirteenth volume of the Pro

Archæological Societies.

[Though the Editor takes the responsibility for the form in which these notes appear, they are all specially contributed to the "Antiquary," and are, in the first instance, supplied by accredited correspondents of the different districts.]

THE BRITISH ARCHEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION opened its forty-seventh yearly congress on July 7 at Oxford, under the presidency of the Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham in the place of the late Earl of Carnarvon. On the opening day some of the old houses of the city were visited, under the guidance of Mr. E. G. Bruton, F.S.A., as well as the University Buildings and the Bodleian Library.

On July 8 Newton College was visited, where the Hon. G. C. Brodrick gave an address on the ancient buildings and statutes of the college. New College was the next centre of attraction, where the crozier of William of Wykeham, in a niche near the altar in the chapel, attracted much attention. Christ Church formed part of the programme for the same day. Mr. J. Park Harrison claimed a Saxon origin for parts of the cathedral fabric which have hitherto been considered Norman. At the evening meeting papers were read by Mr. J. S. Phené, F.S.A., on Features of Early British History attaching to the Vicinity of British Roads and Earthworks," and by Mr. John Gilbert on "Pre-collegiate Oxford."


On July 9 the members of the association visited Banbury, Broughton Castle, Bloxham, Adderbury, and King's Sutton. Papers were read in the evening by Dr. Joseph Stevens on "A Cemetery recently discovered at Reading, probably of Saxon date," and by Mr. T. Morgan, F.S.A., " England and Castille in the Fourteenth Century compared."

ceedings of the SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES, covering the period from November 28, 1889, to April 17, 1890, has reached us. It consists of 128 pages of letterpress, with some careful illustrations, and again bears witness to the thorough way in which the parent society maintains the lead among its numerous progeny. Among the more important papers are those of Rev. J. T. Fowler, F.S.A., on “Grave Slabs in Durham Cathedral;" of Rev. A. S. Porter, F.S.A., on the "Seals of the Archbishops of York;" of Rev. Dr. Cox, F.S.A., on "Sheriff's Precepts of Derbyshire, temp. Commonwealth;" of Mr. Somers Clarke, F.S.A., on the "Collapse of a Portion of Seville Cathedral;" of Messrs. Fox and Hope on the "Systematic Exploration of the Site of Silchester;" of Mr. Rider Haggard on "A Unique Glass Bottle of the Roman Period from Cyprus, with Internal Threads ;" and of Mr. F. G. Hilton Price, F.S.A., on "Recent Excavations on the Saalburg, near Homburg."

The catalogue of the special exhibits brought together at the recent presidential reception, by Dr. and Mrs. Evans, of the SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES, on June 11, is well worthy of a comment. This twenty-eight paged catalogue of a most remarkable and unique collection is sure to fetch a high price among collection in days to come. In the library were a series of tenure and drinking horns, including the ivory horn, temp. Edward the Confessor, of York Cathedral, the Pusey horn, and the tenure horn of the Honour of Tutbury; a beautiful series of rosewater basins and ewers; and the best typical examples of English plate from fourteenth to eighteenth centuries, lent by the London companies, Oriel College, etc. In addition to several other smaller collections, the meeting-room contained a fine collection of the livery collars and insignia of British orders of knighthood.

The ROYAL SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF IRELAND held their ordinary general meeting at Athlone on July 8, when a variety of interesting papers were read; the more important being "Athlone in the Seventeenth Century," by Professor Stokes; "The Walls of Athlone," by Mr. Richard Langrishe; "An Ancient Underground Wooden Structure at Campsil, near Londonderry," by Mr. Thomas Watson; and "Two Hitherto Undescribed Inscriptions in Irish on Stone Slabs at Clonmacnois," by Mr. W. F. Wakeman. In the course of the afternoon the castle walls, ruins of St. Peter's Abbey and of the Franciscan abbey, the fortifications on the Connaught side of the town, De Ginckell's house, and the historic monuments in St. Mary's Church, were visited. The party were conducted by Mr. R. Langrishe, hon. provincial secretary for Connaught, and Rev. Dr. Stokes, the latter gentleman furnishing the interesting notes with respect to the places visited, which were printed in the excellent programme. On July 9 excursions were made by steamer on Lough Ree to Randown Castle, to Inis-Cleraun, commonly called Quaker Island or the Seven Churches Island, to InisBofin, to All Saints' Island, and to Hare Island. On July 10 the excursions, which included Clonfert Cathedral, were directed to the examination of the most interesting spot in all Ireland-Clonmacnois. The chief points at Clonmacnois to which attention was directed were the castle, the cemetery, the two round towers, the sculptured crosses, the churches within the cemetery-now six in number, and the beautiful Nuns' Church, eastward of the cemetery, erected in 1167. The next meeting of the society will be held in Donegal on September 2.



On Saturday, July 5, the CLIFTON ANTIQUARIAN CLUB made an excursion into Monmouthshire. port was first visited, where the remains of the castle, now used as a brewery, were examined, and some remarks on its history were made by Mr. W. W. Johns. Much regret was expressed that this interesting "historic monument was not taken better care of. Though there are no remains visible of the Norman castle, the ruins of the Edwardian structure are still picturesque, and might be well utilized as a museum-an institution which the town does not at present possess. The fine old church of St. Woolos was then visited, and its Norman nave and western pre-Norman Lady chapel, with the beautiful Norman doorway between the two, were looked at. shafts of the columns with their bases, on each side of this doorway, are certainly Roman, and probably came from Caerleon. The sculpture of the two capitals represent scenes from the Deluge, the sending forth and return of the dove, and are very quaint. Proceeding by train to Caerleon, the members were met by Mr. F. I. Mitchell, F.S.A., who conducted them round the site of the once famous city of the 2nd Augustan Legion (Isca Silurum), and pointed out the scanty remains of the Roman walls, the amphitheatre, and the sites of the gates and other buildings. Mr. Mitchell much disappointed some of the members by saying that no remains had been found in "Caerleon-upon-Usk" or its neighbourhood which in any way connected the place with King Arthur and his knights, unless the castle-mound-which is certainly

pre-Roman-might prove to belong to the British period; perhaps excavation might throw light on the subject. The museum, containing a valuable collection of Roman remains found in Caerleon and Caerwent, having been visited, the party concluded an interesting day's excursion with a visit to the beautifully-situated little town of Usk (the Roman Burrium), where the remains of the Benedictine priory, founded by the De Clares, including the gateway, the Norman central tower and western portion of the priory church, and the picturesque ruins of the castle on the hill above the town, were inspected, under the guidance of the vicar, the Rev. S. C. Baker. The fine fifteenth-century rood-screen, one bay west of the tower, probably marks the division between the churches of the monks and the parish. A rubbing was taken of the curious Welsh inscription on this screen, the translation of which has hitherto puzzled all who have attempted it. It appears to be a mixture of archaic or local Welsh and dog-Latin. S

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The members of the BRADFORD SCIENTIFIC AssoCIATION paid a visit, on Saturday, June 21, to the Elbolton Cave, situated between Thorpe and Linton, and about nine miles distant from Skipton. Upon arrival at the shaft leading into the cave a descent of 30 feet was made into the first chamber, and the extremities of the cave were investigated by ladders connecting the different parts. An address was given by the Rev. E. Jones, who is superintending the working of the cave on behalf of the Craven Naturalists' Association, from which it appeared that their first attempt at cave-hunting was made in the summer of 1888, when a trial trench was dug in the floor. From August to December of last year a systematic exploration was made, which is still in progress. The material of the floor was mainly composed of loose angular pieces of limestone mixed with a little brown earth, the thickness of this deposit varying from 4 feet at the entrance to 17 feet at the east end. Throughout this mass bones and relics of the Neolithic Age were found, including the remains of at least twelve human beings, four in situ as buried, the remainder scattered amidst fragments of pottery, bone implements, and bones of animals such as the Celtic shorthorn, horse, wild boar, red deer, dog, etc. That this portion of the cave served as a dwelling-place is evident by traces of fire, a hearth, and charcoal. Underneath the upper cave earth is found a layer of clay, with much stalagmitic breccia, in which no human remains have as yet been found, but abundant remains of bears, mainly Ursus ferox and doubtful cave bear, also Alpine hares, foxes, and reindeer. One end of the floor has been worked to a depth of 30 feet, exposing a further passage and chambers for a distance of about 80 feet, ending in a passage blocked by water.


On Saturday, June 21, the ST. PAUL'S ECCLESIOLOGICAL SOCIETY paid a visit to Waltham Abbey, under the guidance of Mr. J. Arthur Reeve. In the paper read by that gentleman, he contended, in accordance with the views of Professor E. A. Freeman, that the abbey was substantially the work of

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King Harold, and therefore antecedent to the Conquest. On July 12, the members visited Coventry, and were fortunate in securing Mr. W. S. Fretton, F.S.A., as guide to the churches and other objects of interest. もの の

The annual excursions of the LINCOLNSHIRE AND NOTTS ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY took place on June 18 and 19. On the first day the villages in the vicinity of Holbeach and Long Sutton were visited; Dr. Trollope, Suffragan Bishop of Nottingham, described the features of the various churches. In the evening the annual meeting was held, at which the Rev. W. Macdonald read a paper on "The Chantries of Holbeach Church," and Mr. W. E. Foster, F.S.A., read a paper on "The Early Church of Moulton." On the following day excur sions were made to the marshland churches of Norfolk and Cambridgeshire, including Wisbech.

THE CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORLAND ANTIQUARIAN AND ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY held their first meeting for this year on July 3 and 4. The party met at Tebay at noon, where conveyances were in waiting. The first stoppage was just outside Tebay, the objects of interest to be visited being the Brandling Stone and Castle How. The secretary (Mr. Titus Wilson) said that the how was Anglo-Saxon, and was one of a series of mounds in the valley of the Lune, there being others at Sedbergh, Kirkby Lonsdale, and Black Burton. The Brandling Stone has two crosses upon it, and, like the rere cross on Stainmore, is supposed to have marked the boundary of the Scottish Kingdom. The next stop was made at Orton Hall, the residence of Colonel Burn, where a painting of Chancellor Burn, the county historian, by Romney, was shown. The painting is in a good state of preservation. Other objects of interest and antiquity were also shown. The Church at Orton was next visited, and there Mr. Nicholson read an interesting paper on the parish registers. From here Petty Hall was inspected, and a paper on it was read by Mr. F. B. Garnett, C. B. The party next proceeded to Appleby, calling at the following places on the route: Stone Cross, Raisbeck, Sunbegin, British camp at Little Asby, Great Asby Hall, caves, and Rectory; Ormside Church, and other places. At the evening meeting the president (Mr. Ferguson) presided.

The president at this meeting was the author of a paper on "THE BEARS AT DACRE," which have been mentioned and described by several writers from Bishop Nicolson downwards. Nicolson says: "At each corner of the churchyard there stands a bear and ragged staff, cut in stone, which looks like some of the achievements of the honourable family which so long resided at the neighbouring castle." These figures have been the tops of pinnacles, and probably some time or other adorned the top of Dacre Church tower, or possibly_the gateway or some part of Dacre Castle. They have been in their present position since Bishop Nicolson saw them in 1704, and possibly for a much longer period. Such pinnacles were not unusual.

M. Viollet-le-Duc says: "The decoration of religious and civil edifices present an infinite variety of fantastic animals during the period of the Middle Ages. The bestiaries of the twelfth or thirteenth centuries attributed to real or fabulous animals symbolic qualities, the tradition of which has long remained in the mind of the people, thanks to the innumerable sculptures and paintings which cover our ancient monuments; the fables come next to add their contingent to these bestial representations. . . . At Chartres, at Rheims, at Notre Dame in Paris, at Amiens, Rouen, Vezelay, Auxerre, in the monuments of the west and centre of France, are populations of quaint animals, always rendered with great energy. At the summit of the two towers of the Cathedral of Laon, the sculptors of the thirteenth century placed, in the open pinnacles, animals of colossal dimensions. At the angles of the buttresses of the portal of Notre Dame at Paris are to be seen enormous beasts, which, standing out against the sky, give life to these huge masses of stone.' Mr. J. Holme Nicholson, M. A., read a paper on "The Parish Registers of Orton (Westmorland).' Mr. E. F. Bell, of Carlisle, submitted a paper on the Carlisle Medals of 1745, of which he has a large and interesting collection. Amongst other papers submitted were the following: "Some Manorial Halls near Appleby," by Dr. Taylor; Appleby Charters," by Mr. Hewitson; "The Hudlestones of Hutton John," by Mr. W. Jackson; "Domesticites of Hutton John," by Mr. Hudleston; "The Episcopal Seats of Carlisle," by Mrs. Ware; "The Baronies of Cumberland" and "Local Heraldry," by the president; "Mounds at Asby," by the Rev. Canon Mathews; "The Misereres in Carlisle Cathedral," by Miss R. and Miss K. Henderson; "Roman Roads in Westmorland," by the Rev. Canon Mathews; "The Dalston Transcripts of 1589-1590," by the Rev. J. Wilson; "Local Papism, 1688-1715," by the Rev. J. Wilson; "Knock and Dufton Pikes," by Mr. J. G. Goodchild, F.G.S.; "A Book of Accounts belonging to the Parish of Stanwix," by the Rev. J. R. Wood; "Pre-Norman Cross Shafts at Bromfield and Workington, and the Cross at Rockliff," by the Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S.A. "The Chained Books at Appleby Church," by C. A. Rivington; and the "Penrith Crosses," by Mr. G. Watson. Amongst other places visited on the second day were Bewley Castle, Redland's Roman Camp, Bolton Church, Kirkbythore Church, Hall and Camp, the Maiden Way, Howgill Castle, and Longmarton Church.

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THE BRADFORD HISTORICAL AND ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY had a most successful excursion on July 5. A somewhat hasty visit was paid, by kind permission of the Duke of Devonshire, to the Elizabethan mansion of Holker Hall, remarkable for its magnificent dark oak furniture and fine collection of pictures. Thence the party proceeded to Cartmel church, which affords good examples of the four leading styles of English church architecture; it was explained by Mr. R. J. Whitwell, of Kendal. The oak screens are well worthy of note, for they are of unusually late date, having been given to the church in 1620 by George Preston, of Holker, and are said to be of Flemish workmanship. In the vestry is a library of old books, one of the rarest being a medical black-letter

work in Latin, printed at Venice in 1491. In the north-west angle of the nave is a handsome altartomb, with an admirable likeness of the late Lord Frederick Cavendish. Mr. J. A. Clapham, the energetic hon. sec., is to be congratulated on the excellent illustrated programme of the day's proceedings that he issued to the members. The section of the Ordnance map of the district visited, reproduced on the last page, is a new and useful feature. It is a little comical, but perhaps not objectionable, to find the ménu of the dinner that the antiquaries partook of at Grange-over-Sands, in the midst of the programme. But antiquaries must feed, and on this occasion they certainly fed well.

The second summer excursion of the BELFAST NATURALISTS' FIELD CLUB for this season was made on the shores of Strangford Lough. The first halt was called at Balloo Crossroads, near Killinchy, where the party visited a fine old earthen fort or rath, which is still in a tolerable state of preservation. The surrounding fosse is of considerable depth, and a portion of the breast work which surmounted the steep earthen wall and protected the interior is still intact. Ringhaddy Castle, now joined to the mainland by a causeway, but formerly standing on an island, was explored, as well as the crumbling church of Ringhaddy, consisting of a simple nave. Surrounding the site of the church two faint circles of earthwork were traced, but it was the general opinion that they were of comparatively modern date, and probably connected with the boundary of an old churchyard. The party then proceeded by boats to Skitrick Castle, on the island of that name, the massive square keep of which guards the narrow causeway leading to the mainland.


We have received the second part of the seventh volume of the transactions of the LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHÆOLOGICAL SOCIETY. In addition to the formal matters, this number contains notes on the "Early History of the Family of Bainbrigge," by the Rev. J. H. Bainbrigge; an account of the Great Gateway of the Newarke, Leicester, by Colonel Bellairs, illustrated by three excellent plates of plans, elevations and details of the gateway; the interesting accounts of the Churchwardens of St. Mary's, Leicester, for the year 1490-91 ; a list of the Leicestershire Topographical Manuscripts in the British Museum; extracts from the Marriage Bonds of Leicestershire; and a continuation of the Parish Registers of St. Nicholas, Leicester, by Rev. T. W. Owen.

The LEICESTERSHIRE ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY held their annual summer meeting at Shrewsbury on June 17 and 18. The first day was spent in visiting the antiquities of Shrewsbury; the splendid collection of Roman remains from Wroxeter; the recently discovered Saxon Church of St. Chad, the castle and St. Mary's Church exciting most attention. On the second day the members drove to the site of the old Roman city of Uriconium, to Haughmond Abbey, and to Battlefield Church. They also visited the churches of Atcham, Wroxeter, and Upton Magna, all of considerable interest.

The first part of the eleventh volume of the transactions of the CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORLAND ANTIQUARIAN AND ARCHEOLOGICAL SOCIETY, edited by Chancellor Ferguson, well maintains the leading position of this association in the first flight of the provincial antiquarian associations. It opens with an illustrated article on Law Ting at Fell Foot, Little Langdale, by Mr. H. Swainson Cooper, F.S.A.; and the same gentleman contributes an interesting and well illustrated article on Hawkshead Hall. Another admirable illustrated paper is by Dr. M. Waistell Taylor, F.S.A., who writes on the halls of Blencow, Johnby, Greenthwaite, and Greystoke, under the heading of "Some Manorial Halls in the Barony of Greystoke." That most enterprising and versatile of antiquaries, the indefatigable editor and president of this society, Chancellor Ferguson, contributes the following illustrated papers: "Recent Roman Discoveries," 1889; the "Siege of Carlisle," 1644-5; and the "Seal of the Statute Merchant of Carlisle." The Rev. W. S. Calverley, F.S. A., writes on parts of a British cross, and other early fragments found in Bromfield churchyard, as well as on various other pre-Roman fragments, profusely illustrated; the church bells in Leath Ward are continued by Rev. H. Whitehead; Dr. Barnes chronicles the various "Visitations of the Plague in Cumberland and Westmorland ;" and Mr. C. W. Dymond, F.S.A., gives a valuable paper, with plans and sections, on "Mayburgh and King Arthur's Round Table." There are also various other short papers and accounts of excursions and proceedings. The society is to be much congratulated on so valuable, diversified, and well illustrated a number.

The first meeting of the season of the SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES OF NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE was held on June 25 and 26 at Carlisle. At Carlisle, on Wednesday, the Dean of Carlisle and Chancellor Ferguson acted as guides to describe the cathedral and fratery, and to exhibit the vestments and other objects. Chancellor Ferguson then conducted the party to the city walls and to the castle, and the museum was afterwards visited. On the following day the "Written Rock" on the Gelt, Lanercost, was visited, where the remains of the priory and monastic buildings were described by Mr. C. J. Ferguson, F.S.A.; the old church of Brampton and Naworth Castle were also visited.

The ST. ALBANS ARCHEOLOGICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL ASSOCIATION made their annual excursion on June 16. Revs. H. Fowler and D. Davys, Hon. Secs., Dr. Griffith, and others started from Hertford in two brakes. The party went by Rush Green, St. Margarets, and Hunsdon to Moat House farm, and thence proceeded to the site of the supposed Eleanor Cross at Hadam, where Dr. Griffith made a short speech, in which he said he considered it the duty of the society to contradict the erroneous idea that an Eleanor cross had once existed on this site; and that the body of the Queen rested in the adjoining house. At the invitation of the Rev. Stanley Leathes, D.D., Hadam Church was visited, and described by Mr. Kinnier Tarte. Afterwards Mrs. Berry conducted the party over the palace and read a paper. At

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