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the author, the entrenchments at Aldro, Birdsall Brow, and Settrington Wold are delineated, and objects of antiquarian interest, over a wide district round Malton, carefully noted. No distinction is drawn between Brigantian and Roman roads, and we are invited to infer that the Romans simply used and improved such tracks as they found ready to hand. On a hard chalk subsoil this was possibly the case.
According to Mr. Walker, Filey Bay is the Sinus Salutaris of Ptolemy. Flamborough Head represents Ocelum Promontorium, whilst Patrington is the site of the lost Prætorium.
The plan of Aldro, which at first sight seems puzzling, from omitting some entrenchments which can still be easily traced, is really important as containing others which have since been destroyed, and of which no record would otherwise have been preserved. We cannot say quite so much of the plan of the entrenchments on Settrington Wold. There is certainly some confusion here, and that Mr. Walker's researches were challenged is evident from the publication of a rival map by the next author.
Todd.-In 1844 the then rector of Settrington, Archdeacon Todd, F.A.S., published a map entitled "Military Remains on Settrington Wold, copied from an old sketch," in which the entrenchments on . either side of the High Street are very accurately laid down, more so, indeed, than in Mr. Walker's map, which was dedicated to the said rector. In fact, we can here recog nise a generous rivalry between two gentlemen of kindred tastes, and picture a disputation in which the rector appears to have the best of it.
Newton. In 1846, Mr. (now Sir Charles) Newton published a map of British and Roman Yorkshire, in which he closely followed Captain Knox as regards the portion round Scarborough. In this map the sites of British and Roman remains are clearly indicated, but the entrenchments on the wolds are not shown, except so far as some of them may be supposed to coincide with Roman roads.
It must be borne in mind (1) that no investigation into the date and use of the entrenchments can be even approximately
complete without taking into consideration the course of known ancient roads, and the principal points at which they aimed, because various writers have confused the entrenchments of the British with the roads of the Romans; and (2) that the direction of the Roman road from York to the east coast, mentioned in the first iter of Antonine, has never yet been clearly established, so that the stations mentioned on it, Derventio, Delgovitia, and Prætorium, are still a matter of conjecture, though undoubtedly in the East Riding.
Wright, Phillips.-In 1852, Wright in his Celt, Roman, and Saxon, and Phillips in his Yorkshire, published maps, both giving alternative routes for the above-mentioned lost Roman road, one following a line of entrenchments from Garrowby Hill to Flamborough, or Speeton; the other pointing to Brough on the Humber, following the western margin of the wolds. Phillips gives also a sketch of the entrenchments at Aldro, "Earthworks near Acklam," which is both defective and erroneous, and shows that he could have made but little personal investigation of the district.
So far we have seen that the four earlier cartographers, Burton, Knox, Walker and Todd, dealt specifically with the entrenchments on the wolds in certain limited areas, whilst the maps of the three later, Newton, Wright and Phillips, gave the whole county, and were chiefly concerned with the direction of the Roman roads.
Ordnance Survey. - Then followed the Ordnance Survey (the maps of this district being published in 1854), one of the most important works ever carried out, which recorded the position of such entrenchments only and tumuli as were obvious to the eye. For it was no part of the duty of the officers to attempt to restore what had been obliterated by the plough, though in lapse of time. many such obliterations had taken place. For instance, the writer knows of the exist ence of over thirty tumuli in a small area where the Ordnance Survey only mapped three. So there was plenty of work left for what may be called private enterprise, and for the next thirty years the work of investigation was being silently, though surely, carried on. During the greater part of this
time two enthusiastic antiquarians, the Messrs. Mortimer, of Fimber, were busily engaged in tracing and mapping down every vestige of ancient remains, whether tumuli, trackways, entrenchments, or pit-dwellings, in the north-western area of the wolds, whilst the writer, the vicar of the parish, in hearty sympathy with them, was following up their researches on a still wider basis.
Pitt-Rivers. - We come now to an important paper "On the Earthworks of the Yorkshire Wolds," by Major-General PittRivers, read by him at the meeting of the British Association at York in 1881, and published, with a map, in the journal of the Anthropological Society, May, 1882. The dikes, or entrenchments, are coloured red, and are limited to a comparatively small area, so far as regards the wolds, namely, to the line of hills on each side of the Great Wold Valley, called par excellence "The Dale," which runs from Duggleby to Bridlington. The entrenchments elsewhere on the wolds are far more numerous, and some important; however, the above may be taken as fairly typical of the rest.
The so-called Danes' Dike across Flamborough Head, which formed the principal object of the General's explorations, is a work per se; we must go out of Yorkshire to find anything approaching it in massive grandeur. One great advantage in the paper before us consists in the fact that we have here, for the first time, expressed the opinion of an expert respecting the entrenchments on the wolds from a military point of view. All previous observers have been civilians. The conclusions arrived at by the author will be stated when we come to discuss the age and purpose of the numerous earthworks still surviving.
R. Mortimer.-Mr. R. Mortimer did a
good service to students of archaeology when, in 1886, he published his map entitled "A Restoration of the Ancient British Intrenchments and Tumuli" in the neighbourhood of his native village, Fimber. The word "restoration" gives a key to the whole. By careful and patient observation, extended over a long series of years, he was able to trace out a number of missing links, which, owing to the cultivation of the once-open "fields," or downs, had been levelled by the plough; and these he has reproduced in his
excellent map, which is an epitome of a wider district. As yet he has not published his views respecting them, but doubtless they will be forthcoming in time, and will be looked forward to with interest.
Cole. The next contribution on the subject under review was from the pen of the present writer, published, with a map, in the Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society for 1889, under the head of " Ancient Entrenchments near Wetwang," supplemen tary to the paper of Major-General PittRivers, and embracing the district extending to the western extremity of the wolds. In this map the dales, with their numerous ramifying branches, are clearly shown; and the character of the dikes, whether single, double, or more, and their position, whether on the dale sides or across the high ground intervening, are delineated by dark lines which instantly catch the eye, and may be of use to future inquirers.
J. R. Mortimer.-Lastly, in a paper published in the Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society for 1890, "On the PreHistory of the Village of Fimber," Mr. J. R. Mortimer, who for the last thirty years has devoted his spare time to the investigation of the tumuli and other ground antiquities of the wolds in the district extending from Driffield to Acklam Brow, described, with map and sections, certain "hollow ways" in the vicinity of Fimber which had hitherto been classed under the general head of entrenchments, claiming for them a higher antiquity than the raised mounds, or entrenchments proper.
(To be continued.)
able to give full particulars of the "find," which was a most interesting one in its way. The discovery was made a few months ago by some labourers in the process of quarrying, from whose hands the vessels received rough usage; but thanks to the antiquarian zeal of a neighbouring farmer, Mr. Joseph Heathcote, they were speedily rescued, and they now remain in his possession.
The cup was within the urn, and, so far as can be learned, it was empty, and rested upon the deposit of burnt bones, the whole being buried immediately below the surface and
surface is smooth and of a dull red-yellow colour. It was more than half full of burnt bones, but contained no other object of interest beyond the "incense cup." This cup (see Fig. 2), or more correctly, vase, is of similar clay, but finer; and it is more carefully made and shaped, indeed, it is difficult to realize that it was not fashioned on the wheel. It is 2 inches high and 2 inches in diameter at the mouth. The sides, both externally and internally, are vertical from the middle upwards, while below, the vessel is bevelled off to a small flat bottom. The vertical portion is ornamented with incised lines disposed as a band of zigzags, five lines abreast and confined between two double rules of lines, the intervening triangular spaces being perforated. These vases are usually perforated with two or more small holes, but
protected only with a cover-stone-a piece of the thin flag-stones that abound on the moor. No mound marked the spot, nor did there seem to be any traces of one. The urn (see Fig. 1) is a typical Bronze-age one, and more straight-sided, or flowerpot-shaped than is usual in this part of the country, although Bateman (Ten Years' Diggings) had precisely the same to say of several urns he found on this moor in 1852. It is 14 inches high and 10 inches across the mouth; the clay is even in texture and well moulded (hand-made, of course), and the
this is the only example, so far as I am aware, of a Derbyshire "incense cup" in which the perforations form part of the decora tive scheme. I may add that I have never before seen a piece of prehistoric pottery so perfectly shaped and executed, and it would certainly tax the skill of anyone to copy it by hand.
The number of prehistoric burial - places (chiefly barrows) that have been opened ana recorded within the last century, in the Peak of Derbyshire and the adjacent parts of Staffordshire, is nearly 400, and these comprise some 600 or more distinct interments. These interments extend in time from the period of Neolithic civilization to the dawn of Anglo-Saxon Christianity. It must not, however, be supposed that the interments of different ages are evenly intermixed in
this region, or of necessity intermixed at all. Stanton Moor is an example to the point numerous prehistoric interments have been brought to light in the vicinity, but in every case, so far as recorded, the interment has been after cremation, and usually the burnt bones have been inurned. Much the same may be said of Eyam, Abney, and Offerton moors a few miles further north, and beyond, to the borders of Yorkshire, except that the urned burials are proportionately fewer. Fully one-third of the abovementioned 600 interments were after cremation, and of these, not less than seventy were inurned, the majority being located in the above districts. Among these inurned interments were distributed eleven "incense cups," of which no less than five (including the recently discovered one) were found on Stanton Moor, and two in the immediate vicinity.
Another peculiarity is worth noticing: I do not know whether it has been observed elsewhere. In both the Stanton and the Eyam districts the burials after cremation are associated with small barrows, and it is very doubtful whether a mound was always thrown up over the grave. Our present case is an example to the point, and several other urns previously found on this moor were without mounds. On the other hand, small circles of earth and standing stones are, or rather were, extremely common in these districts. Many still remain, as the wellknown "Nine Ladies" on Stanton Moor, and a larger circle on Eyam Moor, but more have been destroyed in recent times; half a century ago no less than thirteen could be seen on the latter moor, and six on the former. A further peculiarity has been observed with regard to Stanton Moor. On several occasions three urns have been found triangularly grouped together.
Since writing the above, Mr. Heathcote has informed me that another urn and "incense cup"-the "old man's snuff-box," as the quarrymen described it-have been found close by the spot where the above were discovered. Unfortunately these were completely broken up by these men as soon as it was found; but Mr. Heathcote has promised to visit the place at once and collect the fragments. The cup was within the urn, as before.
The King's Confessors.
By REV. C. F. R. PALMER.
N the year 1221 Henry III. went, with his royal court, to Oxford, to celebrate the festivity of Christmas, and there, for the first time, he met with the Friar-Preachers of St. Dominic, who had come hither, in the preceding August, to establish their Order in England, and to teach and preach throughout the land. He was at once captivated with their learning, evangelical piety and zeal, encouraged them to go on, and promised them aid in all that was fit and proper. It was at his appointment that they settled in the Jewry at Oxford, and began their labours by trying to induce the Jews to embrace Christianity. Ever afterwards he redeemed his word by showing them great favour in founding, and assisting to establish, many convents in various parts of the kingdom, and attaching some as preachers and chaplains to the royal household. It was F. Robert Bacon who, in 1233, prevailed on the king to dismiss those unworthy and pernicious Poitevins and foreigners, who had been placed in all the great posts of state; and in the following year, while the court was at Winchester, another friar preached before the king and great barons of the realm in favour of the crusade, and thereupon Richard the king's brother, Gilbert the earlmarshal, and many other nobles took the Cross. At court the friars were treated as were the rest of the domestic attendants. They were provided with everything out of the royal purse, as occasions required, in clothing, washing, and mending, in bed and bedding, and even in trifling articles of necessity or convenience. The only difference appears to have been that they had their own cook, probably on account of their rigid abstinence from flesh meat, and took their humble meals apart from the rich viands and prolonged revelry which marked the royal table, confining themselves to an apartment which was at once refectory and dormitory, with a small oratory attached. The friars, too, had their own palfreys and stable garçons. At the solicitation of the king Pope Innocent IV. gave permission, April 30, 1250, to
the Friar Preachers and Minors, whom the king was taking with him over sea, to ride on horseback as often as necessary, notwithstanding the statute of their Orders to the contrary. In 1256 Henry III. chose a FriarPreacher for his own familiar confessor, and for 144 years the royal conscience was at least ostensibly under the guidance of a Dominican friar, till the throne was wrested from the Plantagenet race and House of Anjou, and transferred to the House of Lancaster. Even after that political revolution religious of the same Order were called to the onerous charge.
F. JOHN DE DERLINGTON.
F. John de Derlington studied in his own country, and at the celebrated convent of St. Jacques at Paris, where he graduated as D.D. in the University. He soon earned a good reputation as a biblical scholar and theologian, being one of the three English Dominicans who first compiled the Concordantiæ Magnæ Bibliorum Sacrorum as it now stands, wrote Disceptationes Scholastica, and left for posterity Sermones addressed to clergy and people. He was the Prior of Holborn before 1255, and still in office in 1262. When the popular mind was stirred up to rage in 1255, in consequence of the crucifixion of the young Hugh of Lincoln by a few fanatic Jews, he pleaded the cause of the guiltless Israelites, and thereby drew down upon himself and his community so much anger that the people withdrew their wonted alms, and for three days the friars had not even bread to eat ; but even now such was his influence at court that he obtained, January 10, 1255-56, a pardon and liberation from the Tower of London for one John, a Jew, who had been implicated in the murder, but became a
Shortly after, Henry III. appointed him to be his confessor, for, as Matthew Paris says, he stood in need of grave counsel and spiritual comfort. As Derlington excelled in literature, so, too, he was well gifted in counsel for affairs of state. The king purchased for him and companion, May 1, 1256, three palfreys, with saddles, besides cloth and other necessaries previously ordered to the amount of £4 35. 3d.; and gave him, on the 26th, fifteen marks to buy a certain writing. But
some time after 1261 he appears to have withdrawn to his convent and priorial duties, for the king wrote, September 11, 1265, to F. Robert de Kilwardby, provincial, requesting him to enjoin F. John de Derlington, who had been serviceable in former affairs, again to render his advice and assistance. The behest of the sovereign was promptly obeyed. Derlington obtained, November 20 of the same year, the royal licence for the erection of a convent of his Order at Bamborough, and November 26 the king's grant of a messuage for his brethren at Ipswich. In 1266 he solicited a pardon, which was granted, September 11, for Gerard Troffin and Peter de Faucumberg, who had been arraigned for a manslaughter; and in 1268 the bailiffs of London purchased something for him by royal precept, and the barons of the exchequer were enjoined, July 22, to allow to them the ten marks which they had thus expended.
On the accession of Edward I. to the throne in 1272, F. John de Derlington was still continued in the office of king's confessor. In the same year he was one of the witnesses in St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster, December 12, to the protest made on the part of the crown, in defence of ecclesiastical rights and privileges, on the election of Kilwardby to the archbishopric of Canterbury. was commissioned along with the archbishop and the provincial of the Order by Pope Gregory X., December 21, 1274, to organize the Monastery of Sandleforth, of the Order of Font Evraud, founded by Matilda de Clare, Countess of Gloucester and Hereford, by whose request the appointment was made.
In 1274 the Ecumenical Council of Lyons decreed that the tenths of all ecclesiastical benefices and foundations (except orphanages and hospitals) should be dedicated for six years to the recovery of the Holy Land from the Saracens. In 1276 Derlington was made collector-apostolic of the tenths for England by Innocent V., and continued in the pontificates of Adrian V., John XXI., Nicholas III., and Martin IV. Edward I. thought of making a second expedition to Jerusalem, to re-establish the affairs of the Christians in Palestine; and in 1278 sent Derlington, as head of an embassy, to Nicholas III. to ar