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Prospects of Electric Motive Power on the Illinois Central.

In an interview concerning the recent reports of the Illinois Central Railroad and its intention of adopting electric motive power for suburban traffic, the following statements were made by Mr. J. F. Wallace, Chief Engineer of the road.

"In 1891-92 I made an extensive examination into the advisability of adopting electric power for the fast world's fair trains, and with a view to adopting the electric system, if any should be established, for the movement of suburban trains after the Exposition. The result of this investigation was that I reported to my superior officers against the adoption of electricity as motive power. The question has not been officially considered by the officers of this company since 1892, although the progress of electrical invention has been carefully watched and I have personally on my own responsibility, as a matter of engineering interest, been following the advances made towards electric traction for heavy suburban railroad service. I have frequently said I had no doubt that some time in the near future the Illinois Central would take up and consider this question and that conditions were gradually shaping themselves which would make this application possible; not, however, from any preconceived plans for the adoption of electric motive power, but from the fact that the requirements of the service made the conditions more favorable for taking this step.

"I do not think the overhead trolley system will give satisfaction, neither do I consider the third rail system feasible on account of the large number of trackmen working on the terminal and the numerous trespassers crossing and recrossing the tracks. The application of electricity to a service like that of the Illinois Central will necessarily be gradual and slow, and any system that may be adopted should be such as would permit of the common use of the tracks by steam power as well. In other words, the quescion of the application of electricity on this road is still in the air and while current events indicate that the application will be made in the near future, it may be two, three or five years before the question is even seriously considered. "Inside of certain limits electricity seems to be the preferable motive power for moving small transportation units t frequent intervals and for short distances; while on the other hand steam is the most economical and preferable for handling large units of transportation at infrequent intervals and over long distances. The line of demarcation between these extremes, is, of course, rapidly changing, and the field for the adoption of electric power is gradually increasing as the appliances therefor are more thoroughly perfected and the problems of economical constructions, maintenance and operation are solved."

An Extraordinary Litigant.

Referring to legal proceedings against the Magnolia Metal Co. in a New York court, the Commercial Advertiser recently said:

"The case of The People vs. Shanks will probably make a little history-legal history, but still history. It is pretty difficult to conceive of a man who, without any possible interest himself, will sue a large corporation, go on his own bond in filing an attachment, knowing all the while that he had not a cent in the world, and could not satisfy judgments of many years' standing against him. Yet this is what was developed in the case of The People vs. Shanks. Shanks brought an action last spring against the Magnolia Metal Company on an assigned claim by discharged employees, for $7,000. As the Magnolia Metal Company was a foreign cor. poration, some one had to qualify as surety in bringing an attachment suit. As a matter of fact, Shanks acted both as plaintiff and bondsman. More extraordinary still, he did so on the advice of counsel, who knew his financial condition, and, to add to the incongruity of the situation, his counsel stated that Shanks had no pecuniary interest in the assigned claim in question.

Col. Alexander S. Bacon, of 34 Wall street, did the probing; Mr. Linus A. Gould and S. Victor Constant, of Constant & Coghill, assumed the responsibilities for the action of his client, Shanks, and Police Judge Kudlich heard the case and couldn't see any particular merit in the plea that the alleged perjury was advised by counsel. Colonel Bacon, the attorney for the Magnolia Metal Company, has for years been attending litigation growing out of suits brought by dummies in the interest of large corporations inimical to the Magnolia Metal Company. The petty annoyances have grown to be intolerable, and the company is invcking the law and is bringing these irresponsible offenders to justice. It is an open question whether a trust is not forming in the anti-friction metal business, and the fact that the Magnolia people have the standard metal which, for about the same price, gives three times the same service, has undoubtedly excited the cupidity of competitors who wish to take over the company's assets and good-will without paying for them.

Mr. C. B. Miller, president of the Magnolia Metal Company, stated in an interview that he had traced discharged employees directly to the offices of the National Lead Company, the Hoyt Metal Company and others. He also stated that his company had brought suit against the Sterlingworth Railway Supply Company for $120,000 damages for breach of contract, under circumstances which bear out the theory of an attempted combination in bearing metal. One of the leading stockholders of the Sterlingworth Railway Supply Company is said to be a prominent official in the Standard Oil Pipe Line,

In spite of considerable persecution, the Magnolia Metal Company has thrived to such an extent that its very metal is now in use in most of the navies and railroads of the world as well as in all classes of mechanical industry. However,

the adoption of such methods as are disclosed in the Shanks case and the countenance of them by the members of the bar is a serious menace to all honestly conducted enterprises.

Evaporative Trials of Belleville Boilers.

The London Times of Oct. 28, contained a notice of the launch of the Kherson, built by Messrs, R. and W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Company, for the Russian Volunteer fleet. This vessel is to be fitted with propelling engines which are to indicate 12,500 horse power on trial, the steam to be supplied by 24 water-tube boilers of the Belleville type placed in three seperate water-tight compartments. The boilers are being constructed by Messrs. Maudslay, Sons & Field, at their works at East Greenwich. The following account of the trial of these boilers was given in a late number of the Times:

For the purpose of the evaporative trials the boilers have been built up where they have been made, the furnace sides and ends being constructed of fire-brick in the same way as if they were in situ on shipboard. Although partially under cover, they were practically exposed to the condition and temperature of the external air, which were not very favorable. In the two boilers under trial, each of which consists of eight tube sections or elements, a section containing 20 wrought-iron tubes 4 inches outside diameter and about 8 feet 6 inches long; the total heating surface is 2,946 square feet and the grate area 93 square feet. As only two boilers were to be tested, a temporary uptake and short funnel were provided, the deficiency in natural draft due to this compulsory arrangement being made up by the application of a steam blast. To insure that all should be in readiness for the official trials, which were to take place on Friday, a preliminary trial of them of six hours' duration was made on the previous Tuesday-the weather being very coldwith results as tabulated below:

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Boiler Blast Coal pressure, pressure, Burned lbs. per lbs. per per sq. ft. sq. in. sq. in. of grate.

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These figures, when run out to their conclusions, give a mean for the whole six hours of the trial of 9.76 pounds of water evaporated per pound of coal consumed, and 18.23 pounds of coal burned on each square foot of fire grate, the mean pressure of the steam being 197.6 pounds per square inch. During the whole of the six hours the mean temperature of the feed water was 64 degrees Fahr.

With these results, the official trials of Nov. 1 (which were to be of 12 consecutive hours' duration) were entered on with confidence. The weather, however, at the start was not propitious, the air being laden with a heavy damp fog. At 5:40 a. m. the fires were lighted, the temperature of the atmosphere being 50 degrees Fahr.; at 6:20 a. m. the steam gages registered 200 pounds pressure in the boilers; and at 6:30 a. m. the measuring of coal and water was commenced, and continued for purposes of adjustment, when it was found that 18 hundred weight of coal was being burned in the hour and the water evaporated 8.8 pounds per pound of coal. At 8 a. m. the official trial was commenced, and continued for the time agreed upon, terminating at 8 p. m. with the following results, deduced in the same way as for the preliminary trial: The average evaporation for the first three hours amounted to 9.2 pounds of water per pound of coal burned; for the first six hours, 9 pounds of water; and for the entire 12 hours, 8.81 pounds of water per pound of coal, the steam pressure being 200 pounds to the square inch throughout; and the temperature of the feed water 54 degrees Fahr. Welsh steam coal of average quality was used during the trial, and the fires were cleaned at the end of the sixth and tenth hours. At the conclusion of the 12 hours trial, an accumulation test was made to ascertain if the safety valves were capable of dealing with any quantity of steam likely to be produced. The valves were accordingly set to lift at 245 pounds' pressure per square inch, and firing was resumed and coal burned at the rate of from 35 pounds to 40 pounds per square foot of grate per hour. The maximum pressure shown by the gages during the hour in which this test was continued was 247 pounds. During the whole of the 12 hours of trial all the coal weighed was fired, and no allowance made for cleaning the fires or for what had fallen through the grates.

As the Belleville type of boiler is now attracting considerable attention, its more extended adoption in naval and commercial vessels being imminent, much interest was manifested in these tests, which were attended by several engineering experts, in addition to the representatives of the builders.

The "Star" power hack saw, made by the Millers Falls Company, of 93 Reade street, New York City, is a time and labor saving machine, that is worth a good deal more than it costs. The machine will cut metal of all sizes up to 4% inches in diameter. It requires no attention after the work is put in the vise, and stops when the piece is cut off. The quality of the blades used in these machines has been steadily improved, as shown by the fact that one blade recently cut off an inch squre bar of wrought iron 246 times. This could not be done in a hand frame, but in the "Star" power hack saw, where the pressure and stroke are regulated and uniform, one blade will cut steadily for a number of days.

The Root Boilers All Right.

In November last a suit was begun by the Philadelphia Edison Electric Light Company, of Philadelphia, against the Abendroth & Root Manufacturing Company, of New York City, to recover $34,000.00. A countersuit was put in by the Abendroth & Root Manufacturing Company against the Philadelphia Edison Electric Light Company, for $6,830.99. This suit was tried in the United States Court in Brooklyn, before Judge Wheeler and a jury, and a verdict has now been rendered in favor of the Abendroth & Root Manufacturing Company for the amount of the countersuit.

The Abendroth & Root Manufacturing Company are the manufacturers of the well-known Root Water Tube Boiler, and between the years 1889 and 1891 they furnished the Philadelphia Edison Electric Light Company with about 3,500 horse power of boilers, these boilers being supplied on four different contracts, each of which followed the other at short intervals. Soon after these boilers were erected and in operation in the Philadelphia-Edison plant, a series of troubles followed, which finally culminated in a fatal accident. This brought the matter into the Coroner's Court in Philadelphia, where, after a careful investigation by a jury of experts, a verdict was rendered acquitting the Abendroth & Root Manufacturing Company, and holding the Philadelphia Edison Electric Light Company responsible.

The troubles above mentioned were due, as claimed by the Philadelphia Edison Electric Light Company, to bad workmanship, bad material and faulty design, and also due to the contractors failing to comply with all the articles agreed upon in their contract, and on these grounds they brought the suit just closed, in which they sought to recover $34,000, which they claimed they had spent in remedying the socalled defects. The Abendroth & Root Manufacturing Company claimed that the plaintiffs had not paid them all that was due on their orders for boilers, and also for additional material furnished to them, and on these grounds they brought the countersuit mentioned above.

The Abendroth & Root Manufacturing Company succeeded in the first place in establishing the fact that they had lived up to every article of their agreement and had even done more than they had agreed to do. In the second place they succeeded in establishing the fact that they had used the best material obtainable in the market. In this connection it is interesting to note that the greatest number of breaks occurring in these Edison boilers were reported to be in the item of bolts; and as it is a natural conclusion that the greatest breakage will occur at the weakest point, it was necessary to establish by evidence the fact that these bolts were equal, if not superior, to anything to be found in the market. Specimens of the bolts were thoroughly tested and shown to be of the best material. The Abendroth & Root Manufacturing Company also showed by means of photographs the tools which they now use in the manufacture of their boilers, and they showed that the best methods of manufacture were employed in making the boilers for the Edison Company.

The Abendroth & Root Manufacturing Company succeeded in proving that the accidents were due entirely to the handling of the boilers by the Edison Company, with the object of forcing them far beyond their rated capacity, sometimes exceeding this rating by as much as 100 per cent. and over. They also showed that the Edison Company employed ununskilled labor, and that these employees had instructions to keep steam up to the required pressure irrespective of any demands that might be made on the boilers, and that the whole idea was to keep the lights going which the Edison Company had contracted to supply, without regard to the personal safety of the attendants or capacity of the boilers. Another very important point established by the evidence was that an excessive forced draft was used in order to drive the boilers to the unreasonable extent to which they were used, and evidence showed that this draft was sufficient at times to support a column of water from three to four nches in height. It was also shown that the feed water used in the boilers was very impure, and that in order to neutra lize the effect of these impurities an excessive quantity of chemicals was used with the water.

One of the most interesting points developed was the production of water hammer in the tubes of these boilers, which was explained in the following manner: It is a wellknown fact that every pipe or tube has a definite capacity of discharge, and when this capacity is reached no more water or steam can be delivered through an opening of such an area; so that in case a larger discharge is required, a larger tube must be used. In driving these boilers to such an excessive extent, in the course of natural circulation the water and steam passed up along the inclined tubes to the front headers, and there advanced upward into the overhead steam and water drums, from which the steam was delivered to the piping system. When the circulation reached a point equal to the capacity of the tube, of course, no more steam or water could be discharged from that upper end of the tube, but as the heat still continued to be applied around the tube, more steam was generated, and of course the pressure of this steam in the tube forced the steam and water back down the tube until it reached the rear header, and here the steam suddenly had a chance to escape upward by the course of the rear headers to the overhead steam and water drums, and the colder feed and circulating water trying to enter the lower end of the tubes from these same rear headers came in contact with the steam thus seeking passage of escape. The result was a sudden condensing of the steam, which was followed by a rush of water into the vaccuum at an exceedingly high velocity, and this water rushed along the tube at about this same velocity until it reached a bend at the end of the tubes. The result was a very sudden and powerful blow there practically like that of a cannon ball, which caused the bolts to rupture in the manner above described, breaking them, in fact, so rapidly that a flow of the metal composing them at the point of rupture was impossible.

This flow necessarily would take a certain amount of time. The consequences of this sudden blow was exhibited in the

breakage of these bolts without contraction of area at the point of rupture. It was remarked during the course of the trial that it was fortunate that these boilers were composed of small headers covered by small castings known as connecting bends, and that thus the damage done affected merely these small castings, producing there local results instead of rupturing large castings, which would, of course, be attended by far more serious ruptures. Glass models were shown at court which illustrated beautifully the theory thus presented, and in such a manner as to carry conviction to the minds of the Court that this was the true theory of the disastrous occurrences. Other glass models illus trated the irresistible power of the water hammer, the force of which was sufficient to break the tubes which held the water surrounded by a vacuum.

Prof. W. D.

The plaintiff brought in as an expert Professor Spangler, of Philadelphia, while the defendant brought in as experts Dr. C. E. Emery, of New York, and Prof. R. C. Carpenter, of Sibley College, Cornell University, Ithaca. Marks, of the Philadelphia-Edison Company, and Mr. Albert A. Cary, of the Abendroth & Root Manufacturing Company, also testified as experts on their respective sides. Altogether it is a well-earned and well-deserved victory of the Root Company on which they are to be congratulated.

Improved Car-Brace Cutting-Off Saw.

The use of this machine in any freight-car shop means a saving in time and labor in the cutting of freight-car braces that should command the attention of master mechanics. With it there is no rehandling of the material, no laying out, no preparatory cutting to lengths, no waste material. The angles are cut much more rapidly and accurately.

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The framing is substantial; the various shafts and arbors are made of fine steel of proper diameter, and the bearings are long and self-lubricating, The journals are ground true, all joints are planed and the tables are made of iron and adjustments made convenient. The lower saw is mounted in an automatic feeding-carriage controlled by a foot treadle, and with provision for keeping the belt tight. A saw on top of the table at right angles to the lower saw is carried in an adjustable bearing, which allows the saw to be lowered as it is worn down in diameter. It travels in planed ways, securely gibbed to the table, and operated by means of a lever. The table is provided with adjustable fences and guide-rolls. Adjustable stops are added for holding the material against the fences properly.

A supplemental gage table is supplied, mounted on a heavy iron column. This is used for regulating the length of the braces, and is provided with an adjustable fence across the table. This fence is slotted lengthwise, and has an adjustable stop, the right angle cut by the saws having a perfect bearing against the fence and stop. Two saws eighteen inches in diameter are furnished with the machine. Two counter-shafts are provided, each carrying ten by sixteen inch Tand L pulleys. This convenient and labor-saving machine is made by Messrs. J. A. Fay & Company, of Cincinnati, Ohio.

A lead pipe was recently taken

up, which, it is related had car

ried water to a farm house for 74 years.

A Model Train.

Commencing Sunday, Jan. 5, and daily thereafter, the popular New York and Florida Short Line Limited will be resumed between New York and St. Augustine, via Pennsylvania, Southern and Florida Central and Peninsular, leaving New York at 3.20 p. m. The train will he composed of latest improved compartment cars, sleeping, dining, first-class coach and smoking cars, from New York to St. Augustine. For grandeur and solid comfort there is nothing in the world that surpasses this train. The compartment car is a model of perfection. The entire train is most elaborately furnished, and the country through which the train travels is rich in magnificent scenery, and the one day which is consumed in the trip can be spent most advantageously in taking in the beauties of nature. The announcement of the new train several years ago was one of the great achievements of the Southern Railway "Piedmont Air Line," and the public are highly grateful and have and will continue to show their appreciation to the evident satisfaction of those instrumental in reducing the time between New York and Florida to a minimum. Excursion tickets south have been

placed on sale at "very low rates," and those contemplating taking a trip to the Sunny Lands should call on or address Mr. R. D. Carpenter, General Agent, 271 Broadway, New


The Boies Steel Wheel Company reports business good, and all departments of its extensive works, at Scranton, Pa., running full time. The No. 2 wrought iron center wheel made by this company is winning great favor among the mechanical departments of roads in many sections of the country.

Reduced Quality Follows Reduced Price of Steel Rails.

Mr. J. F. Wallace, Chief Engineer of the Illinois Central R. R., writing in the Engineering Magazine for December, says that while it is true that there has been a steady and

uniform decrease in the price of steel during the last quarter of a century, the average standard weight of rail for main lines has at the same time increased from 60 lbs. to 99 lbs. per yard, and the quality has materially depreciated. As an example of the deterioration that has taken place in quality, he states that during the past year he has relieved from a main track on tangents rails that weighed 75 lbs. to the yard which had been in the track only five years; whereas, on the same district and under precisely the same traffic conditions, there still remain in the track 60 lb. rails that have been in service for over 15 years, which it was not considered necessary to renew this season. While this may be an exceptional case, he considers the steel rail which was furnished by the manu facturers 15 to 20 years ago about 50 per cent, better than the rail now manufactured. This is not intended to apply to special high class rails, which may be furnished by a few rolling mills under superior specificatlons, but to the ordinary rail supplied to and purchased by the majority of the railroads in the United States to-day.

A Railroad Struggle Compromised.

The long struggle between the Missouri, Kansas & Texas and the International & Great Northern roads for possession of the Galveston, Houston & Henderson Railroad, between Houston and Galveston, furnishing an outlet on the Gulf, has been terminated in a compromise, atter being before the State and Federal courts for about three years. The terms of the compromise as agreed on provide that the M., K. & T. shall transfer to the I. & G. N. 4,999 shares of the capital stock of the G., H. & H. at the par value of $100 a

Manhattan Elevated Railway Affairs.

According to statements made by the Auditor of the above-named company to a committee of the New York Legislature on Dec. 5, the company has 102 miles of single $590,243 in taxes, while in 1894 $564,300 was paid. In 1895 track. In 1895 the company paid the city of New York taxes, and in 1894 it paid $93,000. The gross amount of the company paid $95,000 to the State of New York in bonds outstanding is now $46,500,000, but $8,500,000 of these will be ordered on Jan. 1. The capital stock at present is only $30,000,000. The gross income for the last fiscal year was $9,397,572; the operating expenses, exclusive of all taxes, were $5,413,964, leaving net earnings at $3,983,608. Then there was an income from other sources amounting to $287,134, which makes gross income $4,270,742. The interest on the funded debt was $2,095,722, the taxes, $652,722, making $2,748,694, which sum deducted from the gross income, leaves a net income to the company of $1,522,048. For the year ending Sept. 30 last the road carried 188,072,645 passengers. The total number of passengers carried since the railway started, up to Sept. 30, is 2,410,845,487. The company has about six thousand employees, and pays engineers $3.50 a day for nine hours' work; tiremen, $2; conductors, $2.30, and guards $1.85.

President George J. Gould said, when asked what he thought of building an underground railway: "I think it is possible to build an underground railway, but that it would not pay financially. It is not paying in London,

where the circumstances are better than they are here." He said that in his opinion an elevated road with electric motive power would be the best system of transit in New York, and that his company was at present experimenting with electricity. He was asked:

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"Have you any complaints coming in about overcrowded "Yes," he replied, "but I don't see how that can be remedied. In the morning everybody wants to go south and in the evening they want to go north. You can't stem the tide. In Third avenue, during the rush hours, we run trains on 50 seconds' headway, and I don't think they can be run safely on much less headway than

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share, being one-half of the total amount of the capital stock of that company, less one share, the "Katy" retaining 4,999 shares, and the two remaining shares being placed with some party agreed upon by both the contending roads in order to secure the strict carrying out of the terms of the agreement. In consideration for this transfer of stock the I. & G. N. surrenders the ninety-nine-year lease made in 1883, by which it secured exclusive possession and control of the G., H. & H. property. The agreement further stipulates that both the International and " Katy" shall enter into a joint contract with the G., H. & H., identical in every detail for the transportation of trains, cars, passengers, tonnage etc., between Houston and Galveston. Under this amicable arrangement the two rival roads will at once begin a joint operation of the G., H. & H. track between Houston and the Gulf, and the "Katy" will be able to touch tidewater.

The evening classes at the Young Men's Institute, 222 Bowery, New York, report a large enrollment this season. One of the most popular classes is that in Steam Engineer ing.

The enrollment in this class includes workers from all fields of the practical applications of steam, viz., firemen, en

gineers, machinists, etc. They are taught the fundamental principles of the science and also its latest developments. By means of textbooks, lectures and experiments, a comprehensiveview is taken of the whole subject. Other subjects taught are the commercial branches, arithmetic, bookkeep ng, shorthand, English grammar, and technical branches. Carriage drafting, architectural drawing, mechanical drawing, freehand drawing. Some of these require a two and some a three-year course. A new term will begin Jan. 2, 1896. Young men between the ages of 17 and 35 are allowed to enroll at any time.


that." Mr. Gould also said he was aware that complaints were being made about the lighting of the cars, and they were looking about for a better system. A year ago we were about to adopt Pintsch gas, but electricity came into prominence and we decided to wait. If we adopted electricity as a power, of course we should want to light cars with it."

"I don't believe in municipal ownership of railways," said Mr. Gould, "and think it would prove disastrous. Government roads are never run so well as roads run by private corporations. They have tried it in Europe with their military roads, and it has proved a failure. The taxpayers have to go into their pockets every time. The Government, I think, should not go into the business."

American locomotives are now going into Europe. The ordering of 40 locomotives by the Russian Government from the Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, Pa., leads La Genie Civile to say: "Already in the matter of furnishing railroad material American constructors had taken possession of the South American market and were carrying on a formidable competition against the English in their own colonies, especially in New Zealand and Australia, but it was hardly expected that they should be seen obtain ing a foothold in Europe." Why not, pray? Are not American locomotives the most beautiful in design, the most nearly perfect in construction, the most reliable in function, the swiftest in motion, and the best in all essentials of all locomotives on earth? Why should European railroadbuilders not have as good taste and judgment in selecting locomotives as the railroad-builders of Australia and South America? Go to! Europe, as an artistic country, should buy only American locomotives, or else compel European builders to build locomotives strictly on the American models.-Iron Industry Gazette,

The Lake Portable Key-Seater.

The accompanying illustration shows a very useful m chine made by the Lake Brothers, of No. 1645 North Tenth street, Philadelphia. As every mechanic knows, in making repairs in shops, etc., it is a very serious thing to be compelled to take down a line shaft, or any part of it, to have a key-seat cut, or if not removed from its position it is neces sary to chisel the same, which is a very slow operation, and not very satisfactory when completed. Often a great deal of trouble and annoyance is experienced by having gears, pulleys, couplings and clutches work loose on the shaft when in use, usually the result of an inaccurate key-seat being cut in the shaft. With this machine it is not necessary to re move the shafting from its hangers or boxes to cut a keyseat, and in this way a split pulley or coupling can be applied very quickly, or if a solid pulley is used it is only necessary to remove the hanger or box, so as to slide the pulley on the shaft, thus saving time, which amounts

to a great deal where any number of persons are employed.

Our illustration shows the machine as it appears after having cut a key-way 4 inches from the end of shaft. This machine will mill key-seats any length in shafting from 14 inches to 4% inches in diameter, and of widths varying from 4 inch to 1% inches, and any depth (not exceeding % inch. Each machine is furnished with six milling cutters, which by placing one or more on the spindle of the machine, key-seats the sizes mentioned above, any of which can be cut at one operation the width required. When the cutters are kept sharp the machine will mill all key-seats up to 4 inch wide, by % inch deep at one operation, but for the wider key-seats it will be necessary to go over the work two or more times, according to the depth required. The machine is proIvided with either automatic or hand feed while cutting, and has a dial to show the depth of cut in the shaft. The machine will mill 4 inches before it is necessary to move the base forward on the shaft. An operator can easily cut a key-seat 12 inches long, % inch wide, f inch deep in one hour, and other sizes in proportion.

Africa for Africans.

Mr. Robert Perry, a Chicago contractor, who has been spending two months in Johannisburg, South Africa, says: "I want to warn Americans to keep away from that part of the world. There is nothing to go there for. The climate is unhealthful, living is exorbitantly high, and the people who are there are almost in a starving condition. Negroes do all the work in the mines. The place is a desert where scarcely anything grows, and there is a water famine most of the time. Every imaginable thing is taxed heavily. Even Pretoria's own paper has printed a warning to the world to keep away from the place. The people who have lived there ten or fifteen years are away behind the times. When I told them about the motocycle and the kinetoscope, they thought I was telling fairy tales, and would not believe me."

The Switzerland of America.

The assembly hall of the Union League, in Philadelphia, was thronged with people on Dec. 27 and 28, to see the exhibition of pictures of scenes along the line of the Lehigh Valley Railroad. The pictures were photographs by William H. Rau, of Philadelphia, made last summer. A locomotive and car, fitted up with a dark room for developing the plates and all the other appliances of a photographic studio, were placed at his disposal by the company, and the 250 or more pictures exhibited are a part of the results of his work.

The region through which the Lehigh Valley Railroad runs has often been called the "Switzerland of America" from the beauty and variety of the scenery. Many of the pictures are of scenes of which the traveler catches fleeting glimpses from the car windows as he is whirled along the Lehigh and Susquehanna rivers. Some of the pictures are of the country in the vicinity of Easton and Bethlehem, Pa., and the series of the vicinity of Mauch Chunk show the river shut in by mountains and the railroad curving in and out along the bank. But the real "Switzerland of America" is not reached until the traveler approaches Wilkes-Barre. Hereglorious subjects for the artist are to be found on every side. The pictures of this region are among the most beautiful in the collection. There are pictures of Glen Summit and the beautiful Wyoming Valley, and views of forest, and mountain, and stream from Point Lookout and from Wilkes-Barre Mountain. The photographs of the collieries about WilkesBarre, Mahanoy City, Shenandoah and Pittston are exceedingly interesting and illustrate in a novel way Pennsylvania's great mining industry. The valley of the Susquehanna River offers an endless variety of subjects for the camera. The various views of the river between Falls Station and Towanda show conclusively that the scenery along the river is varied and characterized by a beauty that must inspire the most prosaic nature. Then come the lakes. Beechwood Lake, Shawanese Lake, Lake Ganoga, Seneca Lake, Cayuga Lake, Owasco Lake and Hemlock Lake are all beautifully represented. One of these, Lake Ganoga, stands in a virgin hemlock forest of vast extent. The surrounding mountains are covered with a heavy growth of hemlock that man has never penetrated. Hemlock Lake is not far from Rochester, and although not as well known as some of the others, the prospects for its future are of the best. A new branch of railroad has been run to the lake from Rochester.

Safe Lighting of Mail Cars.

The Superintendent of the Railway Mail Service, Mr. Joseph E. White calls attention agian, in his annual report just concluded, to the necessity of adopting safer methods for lighting mail cars. For several years the Post Office authorities have pleaded with Congress to adopt a measure forbidding the use of oil in lighting the cars in which the mails are carried. In report after report the various superintendents of the Railway Mail Service have called attention to the immense losses caused the Government by reason of mail cars and their contents being burned, either by the explosion or overturning of oil lamps when accidents happened.

Such casualties frequently occur, and, as the report mentioned fully shows, the greater number of fires arising from accidents were caused by the lamps with which the cars were lighted, and only in very rare instances by the fire from the engines. In his report Superintendent White again makes vigorous demand for legislation that will


effectually prevent the recurrence of such disasters which involve such tremendous losses. He says:

"The leading bankers, manufacturers, merchants and prominent citizens of this country are very strongly in favor of greater care in the transmission of the mails, because of the immense loss and trouble caused by their destruction in railroad wrecks, when thousands of checks and drafts are destroyed, often taking years to trace up and replace. Furthermore, the average citizen who, after all, pays the freight, has a very decided interest in the matter, from the fact that letters and mementos are often lost which can never be replaced. Every business firm in the United States is vitally interested in this question, because, apart from financial considerations, important communications quently can never be replaced.” and orders are lost, which cannot be duplicated and fre

Burning Liquid Fuel.

An English paper, in commenting on the burning of liquid fuel, says: Hundreds of patents have been secured for different methods of spraying and burning liquid fuel. The great secret of success seems to lie in so arranging matters that the flame will not put itself out and prevent the oil from being properly consumed. If we put a bit of flaming paper over the chimney of a lighted lamp, the paper will be extinguished by the uprush of carbonic acid from the lamp flame. In the same way, when petroleum spray is directed into a furnace high up it cannot burn because the upper part of the firebox contains little or no free oxygen, the spray is driven unconsumed through the flame, strikes the bridge or fire stone and runs down it to be burned-usually badly-below. The jet of oil should enter near the grate bars, but the precise height is a matter of adjustment, involving special knowledge not to be imparted by letter press. As regards the spraying, that is usually effected by steam, but the practice is very objectionable, because the quantity used is very considerable, and represents great waste of fresh water, which must be made up again for the sake of the boilers, at least in the case of seagoing steamers. The use of compressed air appears to be better, but it is worth while to consider whether either air or steam is needed. It might be found practicable to get rid of both by driving the oil in through very fine nozzles -needled if desirable-under heavy pressure. This device has been employed in oil engines with much success, and we do not see why it should not be made to answer for furnaces.

Low Excursion Rates.

The Southern Railway (Piedmont Air Line) has just issued a circular announcing low excursion rates to Southern ci ties and winter resorts. The new points to which excursion tickets are sold this winter included many prominent Southern cities. This great system penetrates every Southern state over its own rails: operates solid trains, vestibuled sleeping and dining cars, from New York to New Orleans, Jacksonville, Tampa, Atlanta, Augusta, Ashsville, Chattanooga, Birmingham and Memphis. This is the route that forms the great California Limited via New Orleans in connection with the Sunset Limited, the most elegant appointed train service between the Atlantic and Pacific.

The Riehle Brothers Testing Machine Company, of Philadelphia, purposes printing in a standard 6 x 9 volume, vari_ ous matters pertaining to physical testing, together with such chemical analyses and other data as may be of value in determining the strength of all kinds of material. This pamphlet, beginning January, 1896, will be issued quarterly, and will be a digest of tests so arranged under appropriate headings as to make of it a ready book of reference.

There will be a receiver's sale of the entire plant of the New York Frog & Switch Company, at Hoboken, N. J., Thursday, Jan. 9, 1896. For full particulars address Mr. F. K. Day, Hoboken, N. J.

The Florida season is now fully opened up and the question of when to start and by what lines to travel is presenting itself to the Southern tourist. A pleasing choice of route is an essential feature of a railway trip. The Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railway, with solid trains, magnificent sleeping and parlor car service, quick schedules and close Cincinnati connections with the fast lines to Florida, realizes all the possibilities of modern journeying.

Dixon's Silica Graphite Paint, manufactured by the Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, of Jersey City, N. J., wlll be used in painting all the tin work and skylights of the Post Office Department building at Washington. A quantity will also be used on the Capitol and the District Government Building.


The Chicago Rabbeted Grain Door has been ordered on 600 new box cars now being built for the Norfolk & Western Railroad. These doors are ordered also on 500 new box cars being built, for the L., N. A. & C. R. R.

Riehle Brothers' Testing Machine Company have just been notified that they have received a silver medal for the excellence of their 100,000-pound automatic and autographic testing machine exhibited at the Atlanta Exposition. This is the highest award.

The Hills & Jones Co., of Wilmington, Del., has just issued an exceedingly attractive catalogue, presenting large handsome photo-engravings of the special line of machine tools made by this company for working iron and steel plates, bars and structural shapes. The pamphlet is original in design and very artistic.

Messrs. T. Shriver & Co., of 333 East Fifty-sixth street, New York City, are Iron and Brass Founders and Machinists who make large castings in green or dry sand-being fully equipped for the purpose. A feature of their business is the making, on special molding machines, gear wheels of any diameter, face or pitch; no pattern being required from the party ordering; and fly wheels and pulleys of any diameter, or face, also without the necessity o5 a pattern. For castings requiring great strength they use a special mixture of iron, which they have developed in the course of their experience. They are also manufacturers of overhead traveling cranes particularly adapted to use in power rooms of street electric and cable roads, and they invite correspondence on the subject.

Our Directory

OF OFFICIAL CHANGES IN DECEMBER. We note the following changes of officers since our last issue. Information relative to such changes is solicited.

Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe.-Master Mechanic W. E. Symons, of Raton, N. Mex., has resigned.

Birmingham, Sheffield & Tennessee River.-General Manager Philip Campbell has resigned and is succeeded by Samuel Hunt. Canadian Pacific.-William Apps is appointed General Master Car Builder.

Chicago & Eastern Illinois.-Assistant Superintendent M. P. Albert Griggs has resigned.

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy.-General Manager W. F. Merrill has resigned, and is succeeded by W. C. Brown. Choctaw, Oklahoma & Gulf.-G. F. Huggins is appointed General Superintendent, vice J. D. Bradford, resigned.

Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific.-Master Mechanic I. W. Fowle, of Somerset, Ky., has resigned.

Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis.-Assistant General Manager C. E. Schaff is appointed General Manager. Erie.-W. F. Merrill becomes Second Vice-President in

charge of the Operating and Maintenance of Way Depart


Florida East Coast.-G. A. Miller is appointed MasterMechanic.

Grand Trunk.-General Manager L. J. Seargeant retires from that position and is suceeded by Charles M. Hays.

International & Great Northern.-W. C. Peterson is appointed Foreman of Motive Power and Car Department. Office at San Antonio, Tex.

Macon & Birmingham.-J. R. Lane is appointed Super intendent.

New England.-T. W. Adams is appointed Master Car Builder, office at Norwood, Mass.

Panama.-General Superintendent A. L. Rives, has re


Pennsylvania.-Richard Durborow is appointed Master Mechanic of the West Philadelphia shops, vice M. Garrett, resigned.

Poughkeepsie & Eastern.-E. C. Osborn is appointed General Manager.

Southern Pacific.-R. L. Herbert is appointed Master Mechanic at Victoria, Tex., vice I. R. Garnott, transferred. pointed General Manager. St. Louis, Belleville & Southern.-J. W. Karner is ap

Southern Railway.-T. S. Inge is appointed Master Mechanic at Burlington, N. C.

Terminal Association of St. Louis.-E. P. Bryan is ap pointed General Manager.

Wisconsin Central.-A. D. Allibone is appointed Purchasing Agent, vice J. A. Whaling, resigned.


A Master Car Builder and Mechanical Draughtsman, with a large experience in designing and constructing all kinds of cars, is open for an engagement. Best of reference furnished. Apply to office of NATIONAL CAR AND LOCOMOTIVE BUILDER.




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of Mr. J. A. L. Waddell.

The Chicago & Northwestern Railway is rebuilding docks
at Escanaba, Mich., making 226 pockets. The work will
be completed and the docks in readiness by the opening of

The Maine Central Railroad is using large quantities of
Nova Scotia coal, and the Boston & Maine is now trying it
on its passenger locomotives, having already extensively
introduced it on its freight engines.

Underground electric locomotives at the Marks Colliery
in Pas-de-Calais, France, each weighing three tons, draw
30 corves, holding 15 tons of coal, at the rate of 10 miles an
hour, thus taking the place of 30 horses.

The Lake Michigan Car Ferry Transportation Company,

which transports freight cars on barges between Peshtigo,

Wis., and South Chicago, has ordered two additional floats

to be ready for service at the opening of navigation in the


The Overland Fruit Despatch, of San Francisco, has

placed an order with the Madison Car Company for 100
refrigerator cars, to be built under the Lorenz patents.
The cars will be 36 feet long and will be equipped with the
Gould couplers.

The estimate of the production of pig iron in the United
States is 9,387,639 gross tons. Unless Great Britain shall
greatly exceed any previous year's production of pig iron,
this is the largest year's production of pig iron of any
country in the world.

An Englishman has invented an automatic headlight
which so adjusts itself as to throw its rays along the rails
on curves. The casing is pivoted to boiler and there is a
connection to the frame so that the light turns when the
engine enters a curve.

The North Sea-Baltic Canal seems to have stood the test
of the first serious frost better than many had anticipated.
While ice had almost put a stop to navigation in the Shen
and Hadersleben firths, sailing vessels could pass through
the canal without any impediment whatever.

An experimental car is to be fitted with electric motors

and tested on the New York and Brooklyn Bridge. The trial

is to last for thirty days and, if at the end of that time it

proves satisfactory, it will be retained in service. It is to

be used for switching only, the cable being retained for the

hauling of trains.

The new shops of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe at

La Junta, Colo., east of Pueblo, are now about completed,
and the new machinery is being put in place under the
direction of George W. Smith, Master Mechanic of the
Topeka shops. The shops are small, but are unusually
well built, and have a good modern equipment of tools.

On Jan. 6 the Southern Pacific threw open for busi-

ness the new iron drawbridge across the San Joaquin River

near Lathrop, abandoning the old structure. The new

bridge was made by the Phoenix Bridge Co., of Philadel-

phia, and put in place by the Southern Pacific mainte-

nance of way department. It has a total length of 477 feet,

the draw span being 200 feet long, the south approach

62 feet and the two northern approach spans 108 and 107

feet long respectively.

During the year 1895 the Baldwin Locomotive Works

built 401 locomotives. The output is about 28 per cent. in
excess of that of the previous year, when but 313 locomo-
tives were built, and about 52 per cent. of the product of
1893, when 763 locomotives were sent out. Of the 401 lo-
comotives built during the past year, 162 were for export.
There are now in hand orders for 90 engines. Of the num-
ber 20 constitute the balance of the order placed some
months ago by the Russian Government. These 20 engines
are now about ready for shipment.

The Pittsburgh Locomotive Works are now quite busy

building new engines and on repair work. The shops have

an order from the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie for ten 10-wheel

freight engines with 18-inch by 24-inch cylinders, which

will be larger than any now used by that company. Re-

cently a number of 10-wheel freight engines have heen

completed for the Lake Shore, and three passenger engines

and three switching engines for the Cincinnati, Hamilton

& Dayton. A number of freight engines have been rebuilt

for the Wheeling & Lake Erie, the Pittsburgh & Western

and other roads.

Notwithstanding the fact that narrow gage railways
have not been a success in this country, there are some
1,550 miles of these light railways in France. But, if re-
ports speak true, they are not proving to be a very profita-
ble investment to the government, who has guaranteed the
interest on the stock for a greater portion of the mileage.
Taking the lines as a whole, there was a small profit on the
working during the first six months of the year, amount-
ing to about $35 per mile. This is not a result which
would allow the lines to be operated as a purely commer-
cial undertaking, but the interest on the shares being guar-
anteed by the Government, the stockholders can view the
situation with equanimity.

The French Ministry of Public Works has recently ad-

dressed a circular to the various French railroads with

regard to some of the complications arising from the fact

that enginemen are paid premiums for time made up. It

is believed that certain dangers follow the custom of giv-

ing such premiums, because the enginemen are tempted to

run too fast when they have lost time. These dangers are

modified, it is true, by the premiums for fuel saving and

by the rules fixing the maximum speeds. It is thought im-

portant to avoid excessive speeds, and yet it is no less

important to avoid delays, which disarrange the traffic and

cause complaints from the public, and which are often

the cause of accidents. The railroad companies are re-

quested to make a study and report concerning the system

of premiums, both for time gained and for fuel saved, in

their relative effects, and also to consider and report upon

the practicability of a general use of registering speed


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dent) when a man will be appointed to keep a lookout and

nothing else."

It is hoped that Mr. Stretton's anticipation of an accident

from this cause may not come true although it must be
admitted that "in that direction danger lies."

The Railroad Gazette states that the Beech Creek Rail-
road for the year ending with June last had the heaviest
average freight trainloads and at the same time the
lightest passenger trainloads that we have ever seen re-
ported. That it is a freight road is shown by the fact that
for its 187 miles of railroad worked it has 2,876 freight and
service cars and only 11 passenger cars, and that it is
essentially a coal road by the further fact that of every
100 tons carried 94 were coal. The average trainloads
last year were 14 passengers and 575 tons of freight. Sub-
stantially all of the freight goes in one direction; there was
but 1 ton westbound to 55 eastbound, so that the train-
loads taken out must have averaged 1,150 tons. The
economy of the heavy loads, and the costliness of the light
ones; are both emphatically shown by the earnings per
train mile, 38 cents for passenger trains and $2.21 for
freight trains, although the average rates were 2.58 cents
per passenger mile and only 0.38 cent per ton mile. The
latter would seem to be ruinously low, but the road earned
not only its fixed charges but a dividend of 4 per cent, on
its capital stock and had a small surplus left.

Among the most recent and novel applications of wire,
attention is drawn in Hardware to the wire flywheel lately
erected at the Mannesmann Tube Company's works,
Germany, and especially notable, in view of the well-
known fact that heavy flywheels, driven at high velocities,
present such dangers of breaking asunder from the great
The wheel at the factory
centrifugal force developed.
mentioned is described as a cast-iron hub or boss, to which
are attached two steel plate disks, or cheeks, about 20 feet
in diameter. The peripheral space between the discs is
filled with some 70 tons of No. 5 steel wire, completely
wound around the hub, the tensile resistance thus obtained
being found to be far superior to that of any casting. This
huge flywheel is driven at a speed of about 240 revolutions
per minute, or a peripheral velocity of 2.8 miles per minute,
or approximately 250 ft. per second, which is said to be
nearly three times the average speed of any express train
in the world. For such a constructed flywheel the length
of wire is estimated at about 250 miles. The use of paper
is also regarded with favor for large flywheels, the tensile
strength of paper being enormous, and it is quite possible
that some of the new big wheels will be built up with a
paper rim.

Professor Arnold, of the Sheffield (England) Technical
School, is carrying out a series of experiments which
promise to have an important bearing on the future of the
steel trade. Hitherto, as is well known, steel makers have
had to rely upon the chemical analysis of steel for deter-
mining its composition; but practice has shown that two
steels may have exactly the same chemical composition
and yet one be tough and strong and the other rotten.
The reason of this was a mystery until the aid of the
microscope was brought to bear upon it. The difficulty
has been how to prepare the samples for the microscope,
and, as the result of tedious research, Professor Arnold has
solved the problem, and has reduced the preparation of
samples of steel to a system so easy that it can be carried
out in an ordinary steel works' laboratory. The micro-
scope has shown that steel must no longer be regarded as
a homogeneous substance, containing the constituent ele-
ments discovered in iron, but that steel is more allied to
geological structure, or, as Professor Arnold puts it, "steel
is an igneous rock made up of crystals of pure iron, of car-
bide of iron with inter-crystalline spaces filled with the
compounds of the constituents of steel." This is quite a
new theory, and opens up a wide field of practical infor-
mation for steel makers.—Locomotive Engineer and Fir-
man's Journal.

The Chicago Main Drainage Canal is to-day probably
the most interesting engineering work being carried on
in the world, and is an interesting exposition for con-
tractors' machinery. The visitor to this canal is at once
impressed by the great number of traveling cableways.
As built by the Lidgerwood Manufacturing Company, of
New York, they are to be found on nearly all the rock
sections on the canal. On section two, McArthur Bros.
use two cableways; on section three, the Des Plaines Con-
solidated Company use four; on section four, McArthur
Bros. use two; on section five, the Quailey Consolidated
Company use two; on section six, Mason, Locher &
Williamson use four; on section seven, Locher, Harder &
Williamson use one; on section eight, Mason & King
three, and Locher, Harder & Williamson two. The only
reason why about ten more cableways were not installed
on this work was because the traveling cableway was not
perfected in time. It is a fact that cannot be controverted,
however, that since the traveling cableway demonstrated
its present capacity no other hoisting and conveying ma-
chine was sold on the canal. One cableway was used on
the river diversion work, and is now no longer used. How-
ever, the balance, 19, can be seen in daily operation-in
fact, working day and night. The traveling cableway is
capable of handling 600 cubic yards of rock in place per
day of 10 bours, and any capacity short of that is due to
the difficulty of loading the skips.

Notes on Russian Engineering.*



At the station at which we crossed the frontier from Germany to Russia, called Eydkunnen on the German side and Virballen on the Russian side of the line, the gage of the railroad changes from the standard gage of 4 feet 8 inches, which prevails throughout Holland and Germany, to 5 feet, the standard gage of the Russian roads. As this railroad is regarded as a means for the transportation of troops rather than passengers or merchandise, this change of gage is intended to prevent any sudden invasion from either side, the inconvenience of the change as regards the commercial use of the railways being completely ignored, the military character of this railroad in particuliar being still further emphasized by the fact that it runs in almost a straight line from the frontier station of Virballen to St. Petersburg, except where necessary to connect with a for tress or military station, while important trading towns on the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland are reached only by branches or not at all.

The Russian cars of the first class are commodious and comfortable, being constructed on the same plan as those largely used in Germany, vis., with a corridor running along one side, and private rooms connecting with this corridor running across the car. The extreme width of the car being 10 feet, allows for a corridor of about 2 feet 6 inches wide, and a room 7 feet long inside measurement. I may mention that on most of the roads there are four classes, so that one has plenty of choice as regards accommodation.

The Northern railroads use wood for the most part as fuel, which, though plentiful and clean, has the drawback inherent to a fuel of low calorific value, that the power developed is small in proportion to the weight consumed, and, consequently, the speed of the trains is slow, averaging about 25 miles only per hour. The stoppages made, too, are rather frequent, and to one anxious to get. through, appear inordinately long; but as the trains do not carry dining or buffet cars, a stop of from 30 to 45 minutes about meal times is appreciated. especially as the buffet arrangements at the stations are first-rate.

Many of the saints' days, too, are observed by closing the stores and sometimes the works, so that it is always advisable in making arrangements ahead for visiting works, picture galleries or stores, to make careful inquiries beforehand. It is also the custom, which seemed curious and just a little ridiculous, to have a shrine in each department of a works-the Bessemer open hearth rail mill, hammer shop, machine shop, etc., each having its shrine to its patron saint right in the midst of the smoke and dust of the mill; and no plant can be operated unless these shrines are provided, at least in St. Petersburg. The government also insists upon the operators of a plant providing baths, hospitals and dwellings for their employees unless the works are situated in a large city, when th latter requirements may be dispensed with.

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Although the neighborhood of St. Petersburg has very few natural advantages as a manufacturing center, there are a number of important industries carried on there, principally in the hands of the government or engaged in work for the government. Among the former there are the government glass and china factories; a large plant for the manufacture of playing-cards, of which the government has a monopoly; and the shipbuilding yards, from which the largest ironclad in the Russian Navy was launched during our stay. Among private concerns engaged in government work there are the Poutilof, Neviski, AlexThe first three are steel androvsky and others. works, and each of them was visited. At the largest of these, the Poutilof works, they employ about 7,000 men, have a Bessemer and open hearth department, and manufacture rails, plates, beams, angles, channels, axles, tires, bars and general merchant iron. In addition to this they build locomotives, torpedo boats, gun carriages, bridges and buildings, and also have a special department for the manufacture of projectiles, which department no visitor is allowed to see. Some of the product, however, was exhibitedamong other things a solid shot which had passed through an armor plate, the point of the shot being practically as good as when fired.

The whole of their raw material is imported; principally from England, and a six months' supply of pig, coke and coal must be stocked before the winter sets in. The duty on everything is high, which, together with freight, makes coal cost from

*Abstract of a paper read before the Engineers Society of Western Pennsylvnaia,

Express Passenger Locomotive with 18-inch by 24-inch Cylinders.


Express Passenger Locomotive with 18-inch by 26-inch Cylinders.


Mogul Freight Locomotive with 18-inch by 26-inch Cylinders.


Double Ended Suburban Passenger Locomotive with 17-inch by 22-inch Cylinders.


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