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Physical Types of the Inhabitants—(continued).
PHOTOGRAPHIC PORTRAITS. Facial characteristics are conveniently recorded by means of photographs, taken in the three ways explained below. Amateurs in photography are now so numerous that it is hoped the desired materials may be abundantly supplied. At least twelve more or less beardless male adults and twelve female adults should be photographed. It will add much to the value of the portrait if these same persons have also been measured. The photographs should be mounted on cards, each card bearing the name of the district, and a letter or number to distinguish the individual portraits; the cards to be secured together by a thread passing loosely through a hole in each of their upper left-hand corners. Three sorts of portrait are wanted, as follows:
(a) A few portraits of such persons as may, in the opinion of the person who sends them, best convey the peculiar characteristics of the
These may be taken in whatever aspect shall best display those characteristics, and should be accompanied by a note directing attention to them.
(6) At least twelve portraits of the left side of the face of as many different adults of the same sex. These must show in each case the exact profile, and the hair should be so arranged as fully to show the ear. All the persons
should occupy in turn the same chair (with movable blocks on the seat, to raise the sitters' heads to a uniform height), the camera being fixed throughout in the same place. The portraits to be on such a scale that the distance between the top of the head and the bottom of the chin shall in no case be less than 14 inch. Smaller portraits can hardly be utilised in any way. If the incidence of the light be not the same in all cases they cannot be used to make composite portraits. By attending to the following hints the successive sitters may be made to occupy so nearly the same position that the camera need hardly be refocussed. In regulating the height of the head it is tedious and clamsy to arrange
the proper blocks on the seat by trial. The simpler plan is to make the sitter first take his place on a separate seat with its back to the wall, having previously marked on the wall, at heights corresponding to those of the various heights of head, the numbers of the blocks that should be used in each case. The appropriate number for the sitter is noted, and the proper blocks are placed on the chair with the assurance that what was wanted has been correctly done. The distance of the sitter from the camera can be adjusted with much precision by fixing a looking-glass in the wall (say five feet from his chair), so that he can see the reflection of his face in it. The backward or forward position of the sitter is easily controlled by the operator, if he looks at the sitter's head over the middle of the camera, against a mark on the wall beyond. It would be a considerable aid in making measurements of the features of the portrait, and preventing the possibility of mistaking the district of which the sitter is a representative, if a board be fixed above his head in the plane of his profile, on which a scale of inches is very legibly marked, and the name of the district written. This board should be so placed as just to fall within the photographic plate. The background should be of a medium tint (say a sheet of light brown paper pinned against the wall
beyond), very dark and very light tints being both unsuitable for composite photography.
(c) The same persons who were taken in side-face should be subsequently photographed in strictly full face. They should occupy a different chair, the place of camera being changed in accordance. Time will be greatly saved if all the side-faces are taken first, and then all the full faces; unless, indeed, there happen to be two operators, each with his own camera, ready to take the same persons in turn. The remarks just made in respect to (b) are, in principle, more or less applicable to the present case; but the previous method of insuring a uniform distance between the sitter and the camera ceases to be appropriate.
It is proposed that composites of some of these groups shall be taken by Mr. Galton, so far as his time allows.
Name of Observer
FOLKLORE. Every item of folkloro should be collected, consisting of customs, traditions, superstitions, sayings of the people, games, and any supersti. tions connected with special days, marriages, births, deaths, cultivation of the land, election of local officers, or other events. Each item should be written legibly on a separate piece of paper, and the name, occupation, and age of the person from whom the information is obtained should in all cases be carefully recorded. If a custom or tradition relates to a particular place or object, especially if it relates to a curious natural feature of the district, or to an ancient monument or camp, some information should be given about such place or monument. Sometimes a castom, tradition, or superstition may relate to a particular family or group of persons, and not generally to the whole population; and in this case care should be exercised in giving necessary particulars. Any objects which are used for local ceremonies, such as masks, ribbons, coloured dresses, &c., should be described accurately, and, if possible, photographed; or might be forwarded to London, either for permanent location, or to be drawn or photographed. Any superstitions that are believed at one place and professedly disbelieved at another, or the exact opposite believed, should be most carefully noted.
The following questions are examples of the kind and direction of the inquiries to be made, and are not intended to confine the inquirer to the special subjects referred to in them, or to limit the replies to categorical answers. The numbers within brackets refer to the corresponding articles in the 'Handbook of Folklore' (published by Nutt, 270 Strand, London), which may be consulted for advice as to the mode of collecting and the cantions to be observed. (4) Relate any tradition as to the origin of mountains or as to
giants being entombed therein. Are there
any traditions about giants or dwarfs in the district ? Relate them. Is there a story about a Blinded Giant like that of Polyphemus?
(13) Describe any ceremonies performed at certain times in connec
tion with mountains. (16) Relate any traditions or beliefs about caves. (19) Are any customs performed on islands not usually inhabited ?
Are they used as burial places ? (25) Describe any practices of leaving small objects, articles of dress,
&c., at wells. (29) Are there spirits of rivers or streams? Give their names. (32) Describe any practices of casting small objects, articles of dress,
&c., into the rivers. (33) Are running waters supposed not to allow criminals or evil
spirits to cross them? (39) Describe any customs at the choosing of a site for building,
and relate any traditions as to the site or erection of any
building. (42) Is there a practice of sprinkling foundations with the blood of
animals, a bull, or a cock ? (43) Does the building of a house cause the death of the builder? (48, 49, 50) Relate any traditions of the sun, moon, stars. (62) Describe the customs of fishermen at launching their boats. (63) Give any omens believed in by fishermen. (66) Is it unlucky to assist a drowning person ? (84) What ceremonies are performed when trees are felled ? (85) Describe any custom of placing rags and other small objects
upon bushes or trees. (86) Describe any maypole customs and dances. (87) Describe any customs of wassailing of fruit trees. (90) Are split trees used in divination or for the care of disease ? (98) Describe any ceremonies used for love divination with plants or
trees. (105) Describe the garlands made and used at ceremonies. (110) What animals are considered lucky and what unlucky to meet,
come in contact with, or kill ? (132) Describe any customs in which animals are sacrificed, or driven
away from house or village. (133) Describe customs in which men dress up as animals. (137) Give the names of the local demons, fairies, pixies, ghosts, &c.
any of them personal proper names ? (139) Their habits, whether gregarious or solitary. Do they use
special implements ? (140) Form and appearance, if beautiful or hideous, small in stature,
different at different times. (144) Character, if merry, mischievous, sulky, spiteful, industrious,
stupid, easily outwitted. (145) Occupations, music, dancing, helping mankind, carrying on
mining, agricultural work. (146) Haunts or habitations, if human dwellings, mounds, barrows,
mines, forests, boggy moorlands, waters, the underworld,
dolmens, stone circles. (190) Give the details of any practices connected with the worship of
the local saint. (191) Are sacrifices or offerings made to the local saint; on what days;
and when ?
(192) What is the shrine of the local saint?
(210) Witchcraft. Describe minutely the ceremonies performed by the witch. What preliminary ceremony took place to protect the witch ?
(294) Are charms used to find evil spirits and prevent their moving away?
(295) Are amulets, talismans, written bits of paper, gestures, &c., used to avert evil or to ensure good? If so, how; when; where? (297) Are skulls of animals, or horses, or other objects hung up in trees to avert the evil eye and other malign influences? (298) What methods are employed for divining future events? What omens are believed in ?
(353) What superstitions are attached to women's work as such? (356) Are women ever excluded from any occupation, ceremonies, or places?
(358) What superstitions are attached to the status of widowhood? (366) Are particular parts of any town or village, or particular sections of any community, entirely occupied in one trade or occupation?
(368) Have they customs and superstitions peculiar to their occupation? (369) Do they intermarry among themselves, and keep aloof from other people?
(373) Have they any processions or festivals ?
(422) What parts of the body are superstitiously regarded?
(432) Are bones, nails, hair, the subject of particular customs or superstitions; and is anything done with bones when accidentally discovered?
(436) Is dressing ever considered as a special ceremonial; are omens drawn from accidents in dressing?
(452) Are any parts of the house considered sacred?
(453) Is the threshold the object of any ceremony; is it adorned with garlands; is it guarded by a horseshoe or other object? (454) Are any ceremonies performed at the hearth; are the ashes used for divination; is the fire ever kept burning for any continuous period?
(456) Is it unlucky to give fire from the hearth to strangers always, or when?
(467) Is there any ceremony on leaving a house, or on first occupying a house ?
(509) What are the chief festivals, and what the lesser festivals observed?
(515) Explain the popular belief in the object of each festival.
(516) Describe the customs and observances appertaining to each festival.
(540) When does the new year popularly begin?
State the superstitions or legends known to attach to—
(b) May Eve.
(c) Midsummer Day, and St. John's Eve. Both old and new
(d) Lammas, or August 1.
(e) New Year's Day.