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the chancel is fresh and smooth, apparently Perpendicular. The tower is without buttresses; the upper part has a battlement and four pinnacles, and double belfry windows of Perpendicular character. On the west side is a three-light window and ogee door.

In the churchyard is a slab with a fine cross flory.

ST. MARY, SPROTBOROUGH. April 16th, 1853.—A handsome church, in good order. It consists of nave with north and south aisle, chancel, western tower and north and south porches, chiefly Decorated and Perpendicular, but with some earlier indications. The nave has a clerestory and, as well as the aisles, is embattled. So are also the porches. The windows of the aisles are mostly Perpendicular of three lights and square-headed, at the west they are Decorated. The clerestory has unfinished pinnacles. The chancel has a moulded parapet. The arcades of the nave have each three wide pointed arches with octagonal piers having moulded capitals. On the north the responds have an Early English character. The nave roof is of flat pitch and panelled. The chancel arch is pointed on octagonal shafts. The chancel is long and in beautiful condition, of Decorated character, and all its windows filled with good modern stained glass. There is also some in the south aisle of the nave.

The chancel has a vestry on the north, on each side two Decorated windows of two lights, at the east a large one which seems to have been variously altered. Its original lofty arch is broken, and a flatter one inserted, which includes an unequal triplet, the remains of an earlier date. On the south of the sacrarium are three fine ascending Decorated sedilia, the arches well moulded, and the piers of clustered shafts. Eastward of which is an excellent piscina, with very good mouldings, containing a stone shelf and a circular basin. The hood mouldings of the sedilia and piscina have buckles. A new illuminated reredos has been erected. Some of the ancient stalls remain, and over the vestry door is a tablet containing three canopies and pedestals of niches.

The church is rich in sepulchral remains. There are effigies in brass of William Fitzwilliam “D"s de Sprotborough ” and Elizabeth, his wife, A.D. 1474. In the south


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aisle is an ogee canopied recess in the wall, with crockets and bold feathering, under which is the figure of a female in a veil, with angels at her head, and two figures in religious habit with book at her feet. Her hands are joined and

. hold something. In the same aisle also is a fine effigy of a knight of the Fitzwilliam family in chain armour with shield, bearing his arms, his head on a cushion diapered with roses. Near this is a trefoiled piscina with octofoil orifice, and a kind of seat or stall of stone with animal figures at the angles. Also some good wood-screen work of Early Perpendicular character. The font is plain, the bowl octagonal

. . The pews regular, a good organ in a west gallery. The tower appears to be Decorated, has a parapet with wavy cornice and no battlement, but eight small pinnacles. The belfry story has long and fine double windows. In the lower part is a two-light window and a flat ogee door. The

vestry is of two stages, with square-beaded windows.

ST. HELEN, SANDAL.42 March 9th, 1854.—A fine church, cruciform in plan, with central tower and two aisles, the nave anıl a south aisle to the chancel. The transepts are short, scarcely projecting beyond the line of the aisles. There are considerable Early English portions, but the general appearance of the exterior is Perpendicular. The stone is good, and the roofs are covered with the stone slating generally used in this country. There is no battlement to the transept or to the south chancel aisle. The south transept has pinnacles. There is a south porch with flagged roof. The tower in its lower part is Early English, presenting a corbel table of that character and a two-light window. The belfry story is Perpendicular, having a battlement and four crocketed pinnacles, and a two-light window without foliation. The aisles of the nave bave odd windows almost of domestic character, having two flattened trefoil-headed lights, with a label above, following the same shape. The west window of the nave is Decorated, of four lights, with a spherical triangle above it. The two west windows of the aisles are Perpendicular of two lights. The arcades of the nave are

12 Sandal Magna, near Wakefield.

tall and handsome, each with four good pointed arches, with columns alternately circular and octagonal, and of Early English character. On one capital on the north is some Early foliage, and the responds have toothed ornament in the capitals. There is no clerestory, and the aisles have sloping roofs. The tower rises on four large pointed arches, of which the east and west hare a Decorated look, with clustered shafts having moulded capitals, appearing to have been altered from Early English. The shafts on the east side are abruptly terminated by brackets. The western arch has a hood with head corbels, representing a king and bishop, and at the points of the arches are heads and bunches of grapes. The north transept is full of monuments to the Pilkingtons of Chevet, and has an early Decorated window. The south transept has an early Decorated window of four lights. There are also well moulded arches between the transepts and the aisles. In the chancel arch is a wood-screen, and there are also other screens in the transepts. The chancel is equal in length to the nave, and is divided from its south aisle by an arcade of four tall pointed arches upon octagonal columns with capitals, exhibiting traces of colour and gilding. These appeared to be Decorated. The chancel has much bare wall on the north, and two Decorated windows of two lights, and a good door to the sacristy.43 The east end, singularly enough, has two windows below and one above.

The two lower ones are early Decorated of two lights, and filled with stained glass. The upper one is of three lights, probably later, and cut by the ceiling. In the two eastern arches are parclose screens enclosing a private chapel at the east end of the aisle. The organ is set up on the south side of the chancel. The south aisle has some poor late squareheaded windows and a large five-light Perpendicular one at the east with flattish arch. The altar rails are new and Gothic. In the chancel are some ornamental ends of benches and stalls and desks. On one is an inscription :-“ Orate pro bono statu,” and also shields with the arms of Percy. The font has an octagonal bowl of poor character, A.D. 1662, with a good wooden cover. There are galleries on the south and west of the nave.

43 The piers of the chancel have square bases and wedges.

All Saints, CROFTON. March 9th, 1854.—A small cruciform church without aisles, with central tower and perfectly uniform, of Perpendicular character. It stands on a lofty eminence, and its appearance at a distance has more dignity than appears on a nearer inspection.

The masonry is good, the parapets moulded, and both east and west gables crowned by crosses. The east and west windows of three lights, the others of two.

The tower stands on four pointed arches, opening internally and all continuous. It is of plain character, embattled, with four crocketed pinnacles, belfry window of two lights, and a labelled single-light window below. There is a circular staircase in the south-east angle of the tower. There is a piscina in the chancel on the south with trefoil head and hood moulding. The font has an octagonal bowl panelled with flowers containing shields, the stem has several octagonal bands. The roof has been renewed. The south porch is entirely of stone, roof and all

, with strong arched ribs and a continuous outer door. There is a stone coffin outside under the east window. The interior is clear of galleries, but is pewed. The north wall of the chancel is mantled with ivy. The buttresses are pedimental.

ST. ROBERT OF KNARESBOROUGH, PANNALL. May 12th, 1862.—This church has a chancel and nave without aisles, and a western tower. The chancel is Decorated, the tower late Perpendicular, but the nave has been rebuilt in the quasi-Italian style of 100 years ago, and requires 110 further notice.

The chancel is of good Decorated character, the east window of three lights, reticulated, and north and south are two fair two-light windows, one on the north closed, and a plain oyee priest's door on the south. The south-west window has pieces of good ancient stained glass ; under the south-east window is a fat arched recess and a plain ogee piscina.

The chancel arch is modernized, and there is a descent to it instead of an ascent. The nave has pews, gallery and organ. The tower is of poor details and late Perpendicular

embattled, with corner buttresses, belfry windows of two lights, with obtuse arch and debased west window of three lights, each merely trefoiled, and under it a plain drawiny with hood moulding.


January 18th, 1854.— A good plain church, chiefly of the late rough Perpendicular prevalent in these mountain · districts, comprising nave and chancel, each with north and south aisles, and a western tower which is engaged with the west end of the aisles, and a south porch. There are two windows on the south of the chancel, which are squareheaded of two lights, of a Decorated character. All the others are Perpendicular, late in the style, and mostly square-headed. The east window of five lights, with plain mullions and no tracery.

In the south aisle an alteration was made about 1600 by the addition of one gable, as if for a chapel, with large graduated window of six lights. There is no clerestory, but a small approximation to one appears in the elevation of the nave roof above that of the aisles, yet with scarcely any room for windows. The south porch is debased, and has an elliptical arch to its outer door. There is a corbel table running round the whole church with large block corbels, probably Late. The tower is well proportioned and of pleasing character, four stages high, embattled, with corner buttresses, but no pinnacles. It has the corbel table, like a machicolation, and corner buttresses and belfry windows of two lights. The east end of the chancel is of excellent masonry, and has canopied buttresses. Under the east window is a door which must have led to a crypt or vestry under the altar. The nave is of four bays beyond the tower. The latter rises on pointed arches with octagonal piers, and the west window, Perpendicular of three lights, is filled with good stained glass by Wailes, in memory of the Rev. Mr. Atkinson, late incumbent. The arcades of the nave have pointed arches with large octagonal piers, of which the capitals are very plain. The chancel arch is similar. The chancel is of two bays to its aisles, and extends somewhat beyond them. In the chancel the arcades are as those of the wave, and contain some wood-screens, partly old. The organ is at the east end of the south aisle. There is scarcely

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